Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 10, Iss 4, Pp 521-530 (2019)
The cocoa bean and its by-products are widely consumed in the world, due to their mineral content, functional compounds and antioxidant capacity, which vary according to how its processed. Fresh dried cocoa beans (FDB), dry fermented beans (FB) and cocoa paste (CP) were investigated, 31 samples in each case. Phosphorus, sodium, calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, zinc, manganese, cadmium lead, total polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity (ABTS, DPPH) expressed in Trolox equivalents (TE) were determined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used. The mineral analysis established that 12 samples influenced CP1 and CP2. There was more calcium in the M26 sample of FDB, with 3.14%; potassium in the FDB, in M13, with 2.44%. Zinc in the FDB, was found in greater quantity in M30, M22, M23 and M9; with 90.46 ± 0.19 ppm in M30. Twenty-five samples reached values ≤ 0.61 ± 0.01 ppm of cadmium. There was a higher lead content in the FDB, in the M20 sample with 3.44 ± 0.05 ppm. The M10 sample, from FDB, presented the highest antioxidant capacity, with values of 591.50 ± 3.76 (ABTS) and 513.68 ± 0.84 (DPPH) μM TE/g.
analysis of main components - minerals - process - cocoa. - Agriculture - Agriculture (General) - S1-972
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 10, Iss 4, Pp 559-570 (2019)
Corn is one of the most important crops in the world, used extensively for animal feed and human consumption, however, is susceptible to mycotoxin contamination. These compounds are produced by toxigenic strains of fungi and may be present in soil, water, or transported by the wind. The migration and proliferation of corn grains can be stimulated by factors such as the higher grain moisture content, higher temperature and storage time, leading to reduction in productivity and quality, with economic losses. The problem does not end production losses, since mycotoxins pose a potential risk to human and animal health. Acceptable maximum limits for mycotoxins vary widely between countries and maize grain producers must adopt the regulations established of the originating country and the laws of the destination countries. This review focuses on the presence of mycotoxins in rot grains from diseased corn cobs due to the presence of fungi, especially mycotoxins produced by the fungi Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp. It was concluded that due to the toxic effects of mycotoxins must be carried out rigorous controls such as the application of integrated management practices, use of new technologies for contaminant detection and the use of recommendations made by producers to ensure that maize grains are safe for consumption.
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 10, Iss 4, Pp 455-460 (2019)
Increase the yield is the main purpose in the processes of agronomic management and plant breeding, therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 7 doses of gibberellic acid (0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg L-1 ) and 2 doses of TRIGGRR FOLIAR (0 and 5 ml L-1 ) in the yield of adult plants of sacha inchi, under a RCBD with factorials. The application of the growth regulators induced the formation of new branches and new female flowers. The number of fruits increased as the concentration of gibberellic acid increased to 60 mg L-1 , but concentrations of 80 and 100 mg L-1 induced the formation of fewer fruits. The treatment that contained 60 mg L-1 of gibberellic acid and 5 ml L-1 of TRIGGRR increased the yield in adult plants from 841 to 1278 kg-1 ha-1 year-1 . The results of this study show that gibberellic acid is a growth regulator with the potential to induce new branches and promote the development of new female flowers and fruits in sacha inchi.
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 10, Iss 4, Pp 461-468 (2019)
The objective of the study was to evaluate the use of growth regulators in culture media for three grapevine rootstock cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) variety Harmony, Freedom and Paulsen used in the pisco industry. Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and naphthalenacetic acid (ANA), were tested as growth regulators in different concentrations and combinations, supplemented to the MS/2 culture medium. 21 treatments were analyzed for each cultivar. The variables evaluated were plant length, number of leaves, root length and other non-quantitative characteristics at 15 and 45 days after sowing. From the results obtained, it is concluded that the best media of propagation is MS/2 + ANA 0.5 ppm for Harmony; MS/2 + ANA 0.05 ppm for Freedom and MS/2 + ANA 0.075 ppm for Paulsen cultivar. Also, a genotype-dependent response was observed for the effects of auxin and cytokinin on the cuttings. However, all cuttings developed callous tissues when BAP was added to the media.
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 10, Iss 4, Pp 551-557 (2019)
In order to determine the biological control of Spodoptera frugiperda in the cultivation of corn with entomopathogenic nematodes, it was proposed to perform tests in the greenhouses of the National Agricultural Innovation Institute (INIA) using entomopathogenic nematodes (Heterorhabditis) with four different concentrations (200, 300, 500 and 750 juvenile infectives per treatment), which allowed us to determine the mean lethal concentration (LC50-48), percentage of mortality and damage in corn plants by the cogollero. The 95% Probit analysis showed that the LC50-48 for H. bacteriophora was 182.58 Ijs / larva and for H. sp (native), it was 262.68 Ijs / larva. The Anova test and the simultaneous comparison of Tuckey found significant differences (p = 0.005) between some concentrations of the treatments, establishing that the best nematode to fight the larvae of the bud was H. bacteriophora, with the lowest percentage of damage in the plant (53.33%) and the highest mortality (84.44%) at a concentration of 750 Ijs / larva. Compared to the treatment with H. sp (native), which obtained a higher percentage of plant damage (83.33%) and the lowest mortality (46.66%) at a concentration of 200 Ijs / larva.
biological control - entomopathogenic nematodes - heterorhabditis native - h. bacteriophora poinar - s. frugiperda. - Agriculture - Agriculture (General) - S1-972
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 10, Iss 4, Pp 469-477 (2019)
The fractional application efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer and organic biostimulants is affected by the time of supply in the crop. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of the fractionated application of nitrogen and organic biostimulants in different phenological stages of triticale (xTriticosecale Wittmack), and its relationship with forage yield and its components under small campaign conditions and low irrigated. The trial was carried out in fallow fields of 2018, lot 2, EEA El Mantaro-UNCP, El Mantaro-Jauja. The treatments consisted of the application of two and three fractions, of nitrogen, dose 150 kg ha-1 and biostimulants, 3 l ha-1 , during two and three early phenological stages: tillering, expanded flag leaf and boot. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with three repetitions. The fractionation in two, of the nitrogenous fertilization (75 kg ha-1 ) and of the Stym25 biostimulant (1.5 l ha-1 ) applied in two stages, tillering (five tillers) and stem elongation (expanded flag sheet), were associated with higher production of aerial biomass (forage) and greater establishment of stems (tillers) per unit area, implanting 47.89 t ha-1 of forage and 600 stems m-2 .
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 10, Iss 4, Pp 541-550 (2019)
With the purpose of generate ecological alternatives’s effects for the control of Spodoptera frugiperda through the dent corn crops. It has been made a field experiment in La Libertad-Peru. It has been employing a completely randomized experimental design (CRED) with 3 ecological treatments (T3, T4 y T5), a chemical witness (T2) and a cero witness (T1) with 4 repetitions. The variables evaluated were: number of adults captured of Spodoptera frugiperda, average of eggs masses per plant, parasitism percentage, damage percentage, infestations percentage, amount of died caterpillars and finally the yield of dent corn production. The results show that in all the evaluated variables, at exception of average of eggs masses per plant and eggs parasitism percentage, exist a slight superiority of the chemical treatment (T2) in relation to the ecological treatments, but without being significantly different in exception to the amount of died caterpillars. At the same time the ecological treatments show that if they are applied since the corn emergence these can control the damage that causes Spodoptera frugiperda. According to the evaluated variables and to the analysis performed, it is concluded that the ecological treatment T3 could be an ecological alternative to control to Spodoptera frugiperda through the dent corn crops.
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 10, Iss 4, Pp 479-487 (2019)
Essential oils (AE) are used as preservatives in the food industry, due to their physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity. The aim of this research was to determine yield (R), specific gravity (GE), refractive index (IR), antioxidant activity (AA) and chemical composition of AE of huacatay (Tagetes minuta), poleo (Minthostachys mollis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and sachaculantro (Eryngium foetidum L.), plants collected from 52 districts of the Amazon region, Peru. For each AE, fixed-effect variance analysis was used with three replications and cluster analysis. The antioxidant activity was determined with the free radical method 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydracil (DPPH) and its most abundant components were identified with headspace gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The differences in R, GE and IR were significant between districts. The AA showed no significant difference between the districts, but between the plants itself. Among the most abundant volatile components, 1-adamantanol (44.42%) was identified in huacatay, β-phellandrene (20.85%) in poleo, β-myrcene (34.59%) in rosemary and α-pinene (23.41%) in sachaculantro. It is concluded that the geographic location significantly affects the physicochemical properties of AE.
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 10, Iss 4, Pp 497-503 (2019)
The use of synthetic herbicides has been shown to have harmful effects on the environment and human health. An alternative to the use of these synthetic compounds is the development of pesticides derived from active principles, found in plants or secondary metabolites from microorganisms, which have phytotoxic properties, but of little or no toxicity in mammals and that can be used in organic agriculture. In this context, the present work analyzed the bioherbicidal capacity of a phenolic extract obtained from olive mill wastewater, which is a liquid residue produced in the olive oil production. The phytotoxic effect was evaluated through germination tests of wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum). The effectiveness of the phenolic extract was compared with a commercial herbicide whose active principle is Simazine. The results show that at concentrations of 100 ppm (gallic acid equivalents) approximately 10% of the seeds germinate. Tests at concentrations of 480 and 1050 ppm inhibit all stages of germination. Unlike the tests with the phenolic extract, the commercial herbicide does not stop the radicular emergence in the seeds. However, they appear with deformations and fail to develop normally.
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 10, Iss 4, Pp 489-495 (2019)
The objective of the research was to evaluate the effectiveness of the seven-spot ladybug (Coccinella septempunctata) as an agent biological control of the whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) in the cultivation of lemon (Citrus lemon). We used a Completely Random Design (DCA), a control (without seven-spotted ladybug) and a treatment (with seven-spotted ladybug), with nine repetitions. The number of whitefly consumed in the different larval stages (L1, L2, L3 and L4) and in the adult age of the seven-spot ladybug was determined. Being the larval stage L4, L3 and the adult stage the states of highest consumption of whitefly per day with 229, 108 and 87 respectively. Also, it was determined that each adult whitefly puts 360 eggs on average and in 6,06 days doubles its population. The results showed that the seven-spot ladybug (Coccinella septempunctata) is an effective biological controller of the whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) in the cultivation of lemon (Citrus lemon). It feeds on 504,11 aphids on average throughout their life and in 30 days approximately reduces the whitefly population to near zero amounts.
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 10, Iss 4, Pp 531-539 (2019)
The objective of the study was to evaluate non-destructive methods based on the measurement of color at five degrees of maturity (100% green (M1), 10 - 30% maturity (M2), 40% to 60% maturity (M3), 70% to 90% maturity (M4) and 100% mature (M5) bell pepper by using hyperspectral images in visible range (Vis) from 380 to 750 nm (37 spectral bands) and digital images (RGB) and its conversion to space of CIELAB color. The peppers were collected in different degrees of maturity from green to red completely, the quality parameters of chlorophyll and total carotenoids was determined by spectrophotometric method and its content was correlated with spectral and color space data CIELAB. The spectral index (CRI700) showed a positive correlation of 0.915 (p < 0.01) with respect to the content of carotenoids and a negative correlation of -0.972 with respect to the content of chlorophyll and variable a * (green-red) with the content of carotenoids showed a positive correlation of 0.949 (p < 0.01) and negative correlation of -0.968 with chlorophyll. Concluding that these methods would allow to analyze intact samples of red pepper in different degrees of maturity.
red pepper - carotenoid index - image analysis - computational vision. - Agriculture - Agriculture (General) - S1-972
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 10, Iss 4, Pp 505-510 (2019)
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the whole world. The drying process for the storage of coffee beans is decisive for the physical and sensory characteristics of the final product. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two types of dryers (mechanical and traditional) at five altitudes on coffee quality. The research was conducted in the Alto Mayo valley, San Martín region, Peru. Five farms were selected at different altitudes (873, 1079, 1248, 1348, 1430 m.a.s.l.). The prototype used works through a system of thermal heat tunnels, built with solar micas and calamine. 150 samples of 1 kg were extracted. The variables evaluated were the physical and organoleptic characteristics of the dry grain, as well as the number of drying days. The results showed that there were no significant differences for any parameter evaluated between the selected altitudes. However, there were significant differences for the parameters of humidity and amount of first category grain, where mechanical drying was superior. Also, in the case of organoleptic quality, mechanical drying was presented as the best option, indicating that its use can optimize the organoleptic quality of coffee.
solar dryer - post- harvest - arabica - san martin - solar panels. - Agriculture - Agriculture (General) - S1-972
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 10, Iss 4, Pp 511-520 (2019)
The objective of this study was to evaluate different control methods of fruits diseases of Theobroma cacao ‘CCN-51’ in Santo Domingo de Los Tsáchilas, Ecuador. The treatments were a mixture of two chemical pesticides (Chlorothalonil and Pyraclostrobin) and a biological one (Bacillus subtilis) with and without fertilizers. In total there were 16 treatments with 3 repetitions, installed in a CCN-51 commercial cocoa farms and under a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The results showed that the use of fungicides (chemical and biological), decreased the incidence of "moniliasis" (Moniliophthora roreri), "brown spot" (Phytophthora spp.) and "cherelle wilt"; but the application of fertilizers did not increase the effectiveness of these products. The treatment only agricultural labors did not decrease the final incidence of "moniliasis", nor of the "brown rot"; instead, the final incidence of "cherelle wilt" increased. The number of cocoa fruits and yield were not directly related and the highest yield of dry cocoa beans corresponded to T2 [Agricultural labors + Clorotalonil (1 kg ha-1 ) (c/15 days) + Pyraclostrobin (0.5 kg.ha-1 ) (c/90 days) + Fertilizers (0.4 kg.ha-1 ) + organic fertilizer (2 kg/planta)], which also had the highest net income/ha.
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 10, Iss 3, Pp 315-325 (2019)
This research aimed to evaluate the adsorption process of CN- contained in synthetic aqueous solution, using activated carbon obtained from coffee residue; studying its efficiency and equilibrium and kinetic models. Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (DRX) and iodine number determination were performed to characterize activated carbon. A composite central design (DCC) with three factors adapted to three levels each and 6 central points was applied to study the effect of pH (A), contact time (B) and adsorbent dosage (C); According to the analysis of variance, all the main factors and the AA interaction were significant in the adsorption efficiency of cyanide on activated carbon, whose maximum value reached was 54.68% and 67.65% for the predictive level. According to the coefficient of determination (R2 ), Freundlich's isothermal model (0.954) and the three kinetic equations of pseudo second order (0.991, 0.993, 0.993) were adjusted to the experimental process. From the results obtained, the active carbon prepared from coffee residue can be used as a potential adsorbent of CN-, contained in aqueous solutions of low concentrations.
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 10, Iss 3, Pp 327-336 (2019)
The objective of the research was to identify mycotoxigenic molds in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), Quinoa seeds were sown in the Coast (Lima) and the Sierra (Huancayo). The moisture content (9.22-15.89%) and the content of saponins (0.17- 1.67%) showed no significant differences between the accessions of Costa and Sierra. The quantification of molds in the Costa accessions showed high counts (75*104 -10*104 cfu/g) and low counts in the Sierra (50-150 est. cfu/g), being statistically different. There is a negative linear relationship between the content of saponins and the count of molds and yeasts in both groups of accessions of quinoa. The genera identified in Costa include: Cladosporium (40%), Penicillium (30%), Aspergillus (20%) and Trichotecium (10%) and in Sierra: Cladosporium (50%), Penicillium (14%), Talaromyces (14%), Aspergillus (7%), Alternaria (7%) and Oidium (7%). The "total aflatoxins" for Aspergillus ochraceus (100H53) was 2.2 ppb and for Aspergillus fumigatus (235H70) it was 1.1-1.6 ppb. The "ochratoxin A" for Aspergillus ochraceus (100H53) was 3.7- 18.1 ppb and for Penicillium verrucosum (53H43 and 53H45) it was 1.0 and 1.1 ppb respectively. The "fumonisins" for Alternaria alternata (100H53) was 0.2 ppm, so all the mentioned molds are considered to be mycotoxigenic conditions that allow to establish conditions of control and prevention in foods.
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 10, Iss 3, Pp 337-345 (2019)
In this work the effect of the N fertilizer application season and the harvest period on the production and quality of strawberry fruits was evaluated. Strawberries cv 'Camino real' were planted an experimental plot in Morelia, Mexico under open field conditions. 5 mM of N was applied in the irrigation in different physiological stages of the crop: vegetative growth (E1), between the end of the first fruiting and the beginning of the second flowering (E2) without nitrogen (E3), during period from harvest. The red fruits of each plant were harvested and the production and quality parameters were evaluated. It was found that, the N application season modified the production, as the applications were later or N was not applied, the fruits decreased. The harvest period had an effect on the variables of production and fruit quality. The differences found in the different harvest periods were highly correlated with the climatic conditions. The acidity, total phenols concentration and total soluble solids were correlated positively with solar radiation and temperature. The concentration of anthocyanins was modified by both factors evaluated; which could be nutritionally benefic.
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 10, Iss 3, Pp 347-351 (2019)
Quality is an important factor when positioning a product in the market, so it is necessary to have an efficient selection process. Currently there are expensive equipment that carry out the selection process that is not accessible to small businesses, it is therefore mentioned that a low-cost procedure is proposed through which the coffee bean selection process can be performed, using a library Real- time image processing for quality selection based on color and size (pixels on screen). A sample of 50kg of coffee was used for manual quality selection based on the proportion of colors (green, red, brown colors), size per grain that is classified into three categories (< 1 cm2 , = 1 cm2 , > 1 cm2 ). Then the same process was carried out on the same sample by using the image processing system based on color and size (pixels per screen by rows and columns for the calculation of the area of each grain) by a belt where 3 grains passed per second. The results referring to the color-based quality did not show a significant difference α = 0.05, but with respect to the time used, the selection process through image processing lasted one hour compared to the 2 hours of the manual process, therefore the selection of the Coffee beans using the image processing system is superior to the manual selection process.
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 10, Iss 3, Pp 353-361 (2019)
The objective of this research was to evaluate the quality of the compost obtained from chicken manure, with inoculation of beneficial autochthonous microorganisms. The investigation was conducted for 13 weeks; At the field level, beneficial microbial consortia CMB1 of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and CMB2 of lemon verbena (Cymbopogon citratus) were extracted, which were inoculated once a week at 5% concentration in the compost piles distributed randomly in complete block with three repetitions. Three treatments T1 (CMB1), T2 (CMB2) and T3 (Control) were established. It was determined that beneficial microbial consortiums suppress odors in the composting process, at the same time accelerate the degradation of organic matter which is evidenced in the higher content of humic acids in the final compost compared to the control: T1 = (3-4%), T2 = (3%), (T3) = 1%. In the compost obtained with inoculation of CMB1 and CMB2, higher biological activity was determined: T1 = 3 ug/ml, T2 = 4 ug/ml, T3 = 1 ug/ml, in addition beneficial microorganisms in higher concentration were identified (log UFC.g-1 ) as well as higher nutrient content with respect to the control treatment, therefore, of superior quality.
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 10, Iss 3, Pp 363-368 (2019)
The global trend of the consumption of harmless fruits from sustainable agricultural systems demands the need to look for alternatives to the use of agrochemicals. In this context, the research aimed to determine the effect of the application of vermicompost (HL) and seaweed cream (AM) on the yield and profitability of watermelon fruits var. Santa Amelia in San Camilo irrigation, Arequipa - Peru. Three levels of HL were studied: 4 t·ha-1 (HL4); 8 t·ha-1 (HL8); 12 t·ha-1 (HL12); and two levels of AM: 2 l·ha-1 (AM2) and 4 l·ha-1 (AM4), from which 6 treatments emerge in experimental design of random complete blocks (DBCA), with factorial arrangement 3 x 2. HL was incorporated into the soil in full dose at 30 days from the planting of the plant in a localized manner; AM was applied via foliar to 30 and 60 days of sowing. The highest yield was achieved with HL8AM2 treatment (48,62 t·ha-1 ), with an average weight of 9,2 kg·fruit- 1 ; however, the highest profitability of the crop was achieved with HL4AM2 (124%). No significant statistical differences were observed in the content of total soluble solids (SST) due to the effect of the treatments.
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 10, Iss 3, Pp 369-375 (2019)
A meta-analysis of the effect of selenium supplementation on tissue concentration in pigs was developed. 13 scientific articles were used, including 2114 animals. Under the random effects model effect size, heterogeneity and meta-regressions were determined. Supplementation generates a high concentration of selenium in kidney (2.51 ppm) and less amount in blood (0,151 ppm); muscle (0.189 ppm) and liver (0.564 ppm) have intermediate values. In addition, inorganic selenium resulted in higher concentrations in kidney (2.74 ppm) and blood (0.157 ppm), and the organic form allowed more selenium to be concentrated in liver (0.568 ppm) and muscle (0.237 ppm). However, the effect was not consistent among studies which was reflected by high values in the inconsistency test (>72%). The tissue concentration of selenium is affected by the number of repetitions, animals per experimental unit, individuals sampled per experimental unit and by the supplemented selenium level. This work concludes that organic and inorganic sources of selenium promote tissue retention; however, the concentration of this mineral is significantly affected by the factors mentioned above.
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 10, Iss 3, Pp 377-382 (2019)
The contamination of food by heavy metals in areas irrigated with contaminated water is of great concern due to the potential risk to human health. To assess the potential risk of Pb to children's health from consumption of cow's milk in an area of the Mantaro Valley during 2018. Fifty-one children exposed to Pb and eight samples of raw cow's milk were selected. Pb concentrations were analyzed with the atomic absorption spectrometer. The mean Pb content in milk was 0.236 ± 0.057 mg.kg-1 , which exceeded the limits allowed by the Codex Alimentarius. The estimated daily intake of lead was 5.9 x 10-3 mg.kg-1day-1 ; the estimated risk index (HQ) was below one, which represents a low risk for children. The cancer risk was below 1.0 x 10-4 . It is therefore concluded that there is no significant risk to children's health from consumption of cow's milk.
estimated daily intake - risk index - health risk - contaminated milk. - Agriculture - Agriculture (General) - S1-972
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 10, Iss 3, Pp 383-391 (2019)
In the Mantaro Valley and high Andean areas of Peru, the pastures are established without weed control or sowed with companion crops (Barley). The sowing of the peas with pastures can mean greater productive advantages. The objective was to determine the establishment of an association of grasses and legumes sowed with densities of peas (Pisun sativum L.) cv "Remate" in the Mantaro valley, Peru. The study was conducted in IVITA (Veterinary Institute of Tropical and Height Research). The Mantaro valley is located at 3320 meters above sea level. The densities of the peas were 0.0; 25.0; 50.0 and 75.0 kg. ha-1 , sowed on the ground with 28.0 kg. ha-1 of total seed of the pasture: 20.0 kg. ha-1 Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) cv "Tama"; 4.0 kg. ha-1 of red clover (Trifolium pratense) cv "Quiñequeli" and 4.0 kg. ha-1 of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cv "SW8210". We used Random Block Design with 3 repetitions. The response variables were botanical composition (%) and dry matter production (kg. ha-1 ). A good establishment result sowing 28.0 kg. ha-1 of pasture associated with 50.0 kg. ha-1 of peas, expressed in percentages higher than 90% in the botanical composition and reasonable productions of dry matter. (DM).