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Scientia Agropecuaria
Academic Journal Academic Journal | 20/05/2015 Please log in to see more details
Scientia Agropecuaria
20/05/2015

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agriculture - animal husbandry - agribusiness - Agriculture - Agriculture (General)

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Nematodos fitoparásitos asociados al cultivo de piña (Ananas comosus) en Amazonas, Perú / Plant parasitic nematodes associated with pineapple cultivation(Ananas comosus) in Amazonas, Peru
Nora Yessenia, Vera Obando;Jorge Luis, Maicelo Quintana;Eugenio Guevara, He...
Book Book | Scientia Agropecuaria. 8(1):79-84 Please log in to see more details
El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar los principales géneros de nematodo... more
Nematodos fitoparásitos asociados al cultivo de piña (Ananas comosus) en Amazonas, Perú / Plant parasitic nematodes associated with pineapple cultivation(Ananas comosus) in Amazonas, Peru
Scientia Agropecuaria. 8(1):79-84
El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar los principales géneros de nematodos fitoparásitos asociados al cultivo de piña (Ananas comosus) y sus respectivos porcentajes de ocurrencia (frecuencias) y densidades poblacionales promedio. Se analizaron muestras de suelo y raíces colectadas de 28 campos de piña en la provincia de Rodríguez de Mendoza, ubicadas entre 1796 y 1936 m.s.n.m. Las muestras fueron procesadas por duplicado mediante el método de Baerman modificado en bandeja, utilizando 50 cc. de suelo y 5 g de raíces. En las muestras de suelo, se identificaron once géneros de nematodos fitoparásitos asociados al cultivo de piña. El género Helicotylenchus fue encontrado en todos los campos evaluados y presentó mayores promedios poblacionales en muestras de suelo y raíces (24,5 y 3,9 respectivamente). El presente trabajo constituye el primer estudio de identificación de nematodos fitoparásitos en el cultivo de piña en el departamento de Amazonas y nos brinda información que permitirá establecer futuras estrategias para el control de éstos nematodos fitoparásitos
The present study aimed to identify the main genera of plant parasitic nematodes associated with the pineapple crop (Ananas comosus) and their respective percentages of occurrence (frequencies) and average population densities. Soil and root samples were collected from twenty eight pineapple fields in the province of Rodríguez de Mendoza, located between 1796 and 1936 meters above sea level. Sample were processed in duplicate by the method of modified Baerman on tray, using 50 cc. of soil and 5 g of root. In soil samples, eleven genera of plant parasitic nematodes associated with pineapple crop were identified. The genus Helicotylenchus was found in all evaluated fields and presented higher population averages in soil and root samples (24.5 and 3.9 respectively). This work is the first study to identify plant parasitic nematodes in pineapple cultivation in the department of Amazonas and provides us with information that will establish future strategies for controlling these plant parasitic nematodes

Subject terms:

Helicotylenchus / Helicothylencus - Pratylenchus / Pratylencus - Baerman / Baerman - identificación / identification - fitonematodo / plant-nematode - AGRICULTURE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY - AGRONOMY

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Caracterización morfológica de variedades de vid para producción de Pisco bajo condiciones de la zona media del valle de Ica, Perú / Morphological characterization of grapevine varieties for Pisco production under conditions of the middle zone of the...
H., Cáceres;P., Quispe;D., Pignataro;G., Orjeda;T., Lacombe
Academic Journal Academic Journal | Scientia Agropecuaria. 8(1):63-72 Please log in to see more details
El estudio consiste en la caracterización morfológica de las ocho variedades de uvas p... more
Caracterización morfológica de variedades de vid para producción de Pisco bajo condiciones de la zona media del valle de Ica, Perú / Morphological characterization of grapevine varieties for Pisco production under conditions of the middle zone of the...
Scientia Agropecuaria. 8(1):63-72
El estudio consiste en la caracterización morfológica de las ocho variedades de uvas pisqueras 'Torontel, Italia, Mollar, Quebranta, Negra criolla, Albilla, Moscatel y Uvina' cultivadas en el CITEagroindustrial. Se utilizó la lista de descriptores de la Organización Internacional de la Viña y del Vino para variedades de vid y especies de Vitis versión 2009. Algunos de los caracteres ampelográficos como el color y forma de las bayas del estado fenológico de maduración es información generalizada; sin embargo, al evaluar los 56 descriptores en otros estados fenológicos se observan diferencias. Por lo tanto, la descripción de las variedades que se muestran aportan una mayor precisión a la caracterización y sirven de guía a los productores de Pisco y productores de uvas para la sencilla y correcta identificación en campo de sus plantas, ya que existe confusión en la identificación de las distintas variedades, como la homonimia y la identificación incorrecta de variedades
This work consists in the morphological characterization of eight Pisco grapes varieties 'Torontel, Italia, Mollar, Quebranta, Negra criolla, Albilla, Moscatel and Uvina' cultivated in the CITEagroindustrial, based on the International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV) list of descriptors for vine varieties and Vitis species, version 2009. Some ampelographic characters such as berry color and shape during the phenological stage are general knowledge, however the 56 descriptors in different phenological stages highlight differences. Therefore, the description of the varieties provides a greater precision to the characterization and serves as a guide to the producers of Pisco and producers of grapes, for a simple and correct identification of their plants in the field, avoiding the confusion that currently exists in the Identification of the different varieties, such as homonymy and incorrect identification

Subject terms:

vid / vid - Pisco / Pisco - Ica / Ica - Peru / Perú - ampelography / ampelografía - AGRICULTURE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY - AGRONOMY

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Composición proximal y propiedades funcionales del surimi liofilizado de Dosidicus gigas "calamar gigante" / Proximal composition and functional properties of lyophilizated surimi of Dosidicus gigas "jumbo squid"
Armando, Solari-Godiño;Javier S., Córdova-Ramos;Silvia, Pilco-Quesada;Luz M...
Academic Journal Academic Journal | Scientia Agropecuaria. 8(1):57-62 Please log in to see more details
El propósito de la investigación fue determinar la composición proximal y propiedades ... more
Composición proximal y propiedades funcionales del surimi liofilizado de Dosidicus gigas "calamar gigante" / Proximal composition and functional properties of lyophilizated surimi of Dosidicus gigas "jumbo squid"
Scientia Agropecuaria. 8(1):57-62
El propósito de la investigación fue determinar la composición proximal y propiedades funcionales del surimi liofilizado de calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas). Se elaboró surimi a partir de calamar gigante y fue liofilizado hasta obtener surimi en polvo para evaluar sus características y propiedades funcionales. El contenido de proteínas fue 58,7% y carbohidratos 30,5%. La solubilidad proteica en agua y sal (3%) fueron 21,1% y 40,6% respectivamente, siendo estos valores superiores a surimi en polvo de especies comerciales. La capacidad de gelificación fue 2,4% y la capacidad emulsificante fue 79,9% a una concentración del 1,0%. El color en la escala de Hunter fue L*: 91,5; a*: 0,5; b*:7,0. El surimi en polvo de calamar gigante fue considerado como un polvo proteico funcional debido a su contenido porcentual proteico, y tuvieron buenas características tecnológicas y de gran potencial en la industria alimentaria
The purpose of the research was to determinate proximal composition and functional properties of the giant squid freeze-dried surimi (Dosidicus gigas). Surimi elaborated from giant squid and it lyophilized until obtaining surimi powder to evaluate its characteristics and functional properties. The protein content was 58.7% and carbohydrate 30.5%. Protein solubility in water and salt (3%) were 21.1% and 40.6% respectively, these values being higher than surimi powder of commercial species. The gelling capacity was 2.4% and the emulsifying capacity was 79.9% at a concentration of 1.0%. The color on the Hunter scale was L*: 91.5; a*: 0.5; b*: 7.0. Giant squid powder surimi considered as a functional protein powder due to its percentage protein content, and had good technological characteristics and great potential in the food industry

Subject terms:

surimi / surimi - calamari gigante / jumbo squid - Dosidicus gigas / Dosidicus gigas - propiedades funcionales proteicas / protein functional properties - AGRICULTURE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY - AGRONOMY

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Influência do estádio de maturação na qualidade físico-química de frutos de umbu (Spondias tuberosa) / Influence of the maturation stage on the physical-chemical quality of fruits of umbu (Spondias tuberosa)
Pedro Henrique, Santos de Menezes;Adalgisa Aranha de, Souza;Edgley Soares d...
Academic Journal Academic Journal | Scientia Agropecuaria. 8(1):73-78 Please log in to see more details
A colheita em estádios adequados de maturação é determinante na manutenção da qualidad... more
Influência do estádio de maturação na qualidade físico-química de frutos de umbu (Spondias tuberosa) / Influence of the maturation stage on the physical-chemical quality of fruits of umbu (Spondias tuberosa)
Scientia Agropecuaria. 8(1):73-78
A colheita em estádios adequados de maturação é determinante na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de frutos de umbu. Nesse sentido objetivou-se com esse trabalho determinar a influência do estádio de maturação na qualidade físico-química de frutos de umbu procedentes do nordeste brasileiro. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Tecnologia de Alimentos do Centro Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Roraima, município de Boa Vista, Roraima, Brasil. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com dez repetições e um fruto por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos constaram de três estádios de maturação dos frutos: verdes, de vez e maduros. As características físicas avaliadas foram: comprimento do fruto, diâmetro do fruto, massa de semente, massa da casca, massa da polpa, massa total e rendimento de polpa. Na determinação da qualidade química avaliou-se: o pH, o teor de sólidos solúveis, a acidez titulável e a relação sólidos solúveis/acidez titulável. Concluiu-se que os estádios de maturação dos frutos de umbu exercem diferentes capacidades de resposta quanto a sua biometria. Frutos de umbu no estádio verde possuem maior massa e por consequência maior rendimento de polpa. A qualidade de frutos de umbu não é influenciada pelos diferentes estádios de maturação dos frutos
Harvesting at suitable maturation stages is determinant in maintaining post-harvest quality of umbu fruit. In this sense, the aim of this work was to determine the influence of the maturation stage on the physical- chemical quality of umbu fruits from the brazilian northeast. The experiment was conducted at the Food Technology Laboratory of the Agrarian Sciences Center of the Federal University of Roraima, Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with ten replicates and one fruit per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of three maturation stages of the fruits: green, once and ripe. The physical characteristics evaluated were: fruit length, fruit diameter, seed mass, bark mass, pulp mass, total mass and pulp yield. The determination of the chemical quality was evaluated: pH, soluble solids content, titratable acidity and soluble solids / titratable acidity ratio. It was concluded that the stages of maturation of umbu fruits exert different response capacities regarding their biometry. Fruits of umbu in the green stage have higher mass and consequently higher yield of pulp. The fruit quality of umbu is not influenced by the different maturation stages of the fruits

Subject terms:

Spondias tuberosa - pulp yield - seed weight - after harvest - rendimento de polpa - massa da semente - qualidade físico-química - pós-colheita - AGRICULTURE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY - AGRONOMY

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Detección temprana de resistencia a Mycosphaerella fijiensis en genotipos locales de Musáceas en Ecuador / Early detection of resistance to Mycosphaerella fijiensis in local genotypes of Musa in Ecuador
Galo, Cedeño García;Carmen, Suarez Capello;Danilo, Vera Coello;Carlo, Fadda...
Academic Journal Academic Journal | Scientia Agropecuaria. 8(1):29-42 Please log in to see more details
El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la reacción de 14 genotipos de musáceas... more
Detección temprana de resistencia a Mycosphaerella fijiensis en genotipos locales de Musáceas en Ecuador / Early detection of resistance to Mycosphaerella fijiensis in local genotypes of Musa in Ecuador
Scientia Agropecuaria. 8(1):29-42
El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la reacción de 14 genotipos de musáceas frente a Mycosphaerella fijensis, agente causal de la Sigatoka negra. Se condujeron dos experimentos en el Departamento de Protección Vegetal de la Estación Experimental Pichilingue del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIAP), Ecuador. Los genotipos evaluados fueron: banano Orito (AA), Guineo de jardín, Williams, Filipino, Gros Michel, Mulato y Morado, del genoma (AAA), y los plátanos Limeño, Maqueño, Dominico, Dominico-Hartón, Dominico gigante, Dominico negro y Barraganete, del genoma AAB. Se usaron dos métodos de inoculación: a) in vitro sobre fragmentos de hoja con una suspensión de conidios y b) inoculación de plántulas de ocho semanas de edad con una suspensión micelial. En el primer caso se midió el periodo de incubación (PI) y el número de lesiones a los 14 y 20 días después de la inoculación (DDI). En invernadero, se registró el PI, tiempo de evolución de síntomas (TES) y tiempo de desarrollo de la enfermedad (TDE). Se determinaron diferencias estadísticas significativas (p ≤ 0,05) para todas las variables evaluadas; los cultivares Orito (AA) y Limeño (AAB) calificaron como resistentes, mientras que todos los demás fueron susceptibles, aunque mostraron un rango de variabilidad en la respuesta a las inoculaciones.
The aim of this research was to determine resistance reaction of 14 Musa genotypes against Mycosphaerella fijensis, causal agent of Black Sigatoka disease. Two experiments were conducted in laboratory and shadehause at Pichilingue research Station from the National Institute of Agricultural Research (INIAP), Ecuador. Genotypes considered were: Orito (AA), Guineo de jardín, Williams, Filipino, Gross Mitchel, Mulato and Morado, (AAA); Limeño, Maqueño, Dominico, Dominico-Hartón, Dominico gigante, Dominico negro and Barraganete from the AAB genome. Two inoculation methods were used to asses’ resistance: a) in vitro inoculation over leaf fragments with a conidial suspension, and b) inoculation of eight weeks old seedlings with a mycelial suspension of the fungus. In the first case, the incubation period (IP) and the number of lesions at 14 and 20 days after inoculation (DDI) were measured. For in vitro trial, the incubation period (IP) and the number of leaf lesions 14 and 20 days after inoculation (DDI) were measured, and for seedlings, PI, period of symptoms evolution (TES) and time for disease development (TDE) were recorded. Statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences were found for all variables. Cultivars Orito (AA) and Limeño (AAB) qualify as resistant while all the others were susceptible, though response to inoculation within the latter group showed a range of variability.

Subject terms:

cultivares de Musa / Musa cultivars - inoculación / inoculatión - inóculo / inóculum - resistencia / resistance - biodiversidad / biodiversity - AGRICULTURE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY - AGRONOMY

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Efecto de la intensidad de diodos electroluminosos y fotoperiodo en la optimización de la producción de biomasa de Spirulina (Arthrospira) / Effect of the light emitting diodes intensity and photoperiod in the optimization of the Spirulina (Arthrospira)...
V, Vásquez-Villalobos;D, Vergaray;J, Méndez;I, Barrios;R, Baquedano;C, Cald...
Academic Journal Academic Journal | Scientia Agropecuaria. 8(1):43-55 Please log in to see more details
Se optimizó la producción de biomasa (ф) de cultivos batch de Spirulina sp. en fotobio... more
Efecto de la intensidad de diodos electroluminosos y fotoperiodo en la optimización de la producción de biomasa de Spirulina (Arthrospira) / Effect of the light emitting diodes intensity and photoperiod in the optimization of the Spirulina (Arthrospira)...
Scientia Agropecuaria. 8(1):43-55
Se optimizó la producción de biomasa (ф) de cultivos batch de Spirulina sp. en fotobiorreactores a escala de laboratorio (FBL) de 0,2 L, por efecto de X1: intensidad de diodos electroluminosos (LED’s) entre 1,25 a 41,7 klux y X2: fotoperiodo de 12/12 a 24/0, h de luz/h de oscuridad (L/O) utilizando un diseño compuesto central rotacional (DCCR) y metodología de superficie de respuesta (MSR). Asimismo, se evaluaron las características hidráulicas y el valor ф de un cultivo batch de Spirulina en un fotobiorreactor de canal bucle cerrado abierto a la atmósfera (FB-BCAA) por efecto de la iluminación LED de 8,3±1,9 klux y fotoperiodos de 12/12 y 24/0 h L/O. En los FBL se encontró dos zonas óptimas de ф, ambas con una intensidad LED de 21,5 klux y fotoperiodos 12/12 y 24/0 h L/O, siendo los valores ф de 1,65 y 1,62 respectivamente. El modelo matemático que indicó estas zonas fue de segundo orden (p = 0,000396 < 0,05) con una consistencia de predicción de R² = 0,92. En el FB-BCAA, el cultivo de Spirulina sp. con fotoperiodo de 12/12 h L/O, mostró un valor ф de 0,72, una adaptación más rápida de λ = 4,62 h, una mayor velocidad específica de crecimiento de μmax= 0,033 h-1 y menor tiempo de consumo de energía de 74,05 h; comparado con el cultivo desarrollado con fotoperiodo 24/0 h L/O. Los parámetros hidráulicos del FB-BCAA fueron: volumen de operación 2,5 L, velocidad de flujo 0,26 m/s, números de Reynolds (Re) 15488, Froude (Fr) 0,60 y Vedernikov (Ved) 0,90.
Biomass (ф) production from Spirulina sp. batch cultures was optimized in laboratory scale photobioreactors (LPB) of 0.2 L, by the effect of X1: intensity of light emitting diodes (LEDs) and X2: photoperiod, between 1.25-41.7 klux and 12/12-24/0 hours of light/dark (L/D) respectively using a central composite rotational design (CCRD) and response surface methodology (RSM). The hydraulic characteristics and ф value from Spirulina batch cultures were also evaluated in a closed-loop channel photobioreactor open to the atmosphere (PB-CLOA) by the effect of the lighting LED of 8.3±1.9 klux and photoperiod of 12/12 and 24/0 h L/D. Two optimal zones of ф in LPB were identified, both with a 21.5 klux LED intensity and photoperiod relationship of 12/2 and 24/0 h L/D, with values of 1.65 and 1.62 ф respectively. The mathematical model which indicated the optimal zones was of 2nd order, which had a high significance (p = 0.000396 < 0.05) achieving a predictive value of R2 = 0.92. In the PB-CLOA, the cultivation of Spirulina sp. with photoperiod of 12/12 h L/D, showed a ф value of 0.72, a more rapid adaptation of λ = 4.62 h, a higher specific growth rate of μmax=0.033 h-1 and reduced time energy consumption of 74.05 h; compared to culture developed with photoperiod 24/0 h L/D. The PB-CLOA hydraulic parameters were: operation volume 2.5 L, flow velocity 0.26 m/s, numbers of Reynolds (Re) 15488, Froude (Fr) 0.60 and Vedernikov (Ved) 0.90.

Subject terms:

air-lift - hold-up - Spirulina - photobioreactor - LED - optimization - photoperiod - fotobiorreactor - optimización - fotoperiodo - AGRICULTURE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY - AGRONOMY

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Purificación y caracterización preliminar de proteasas del látex de Vasconcellea candicans (A. Gray) A. DC (Mito) / Purification and preliminary characterization of latex proteases of Vasconcellea candicans (A. Gray) A. DC (Mito)
Ana I. F, Gutiérrez;Oscar, Nolasco;Carlos, Santa Cruz
Academic Journal Academic Journal | Scientia Agropecuaria. 8(1):7-17 Please log in to see more details
Estudios preliminares indican que, el látex fresco del 'Mito' tiene una actividad espe... more
Purificación y caracterización preliminar de proteasas del látex de Vasconcellea candicans (A. Gray) A. DC (Mito) / Purification and preliminary characterization of latex proteases of Vasconcellea candicans (A. Gray) A. DC (Mito)
Scientia Agropecuaria. 8(1):7-17
Estudios preliminares indican que, el látex fresco del 'Mito' tiene una actividad específica de papaína de 1,84 veces mayor a la encontrada en el látex of papaya, por lo que el objetivo de este trabajo fue purificar y caracterizar las proteasas del látex fresco del 'Mito' que tuvieran actividad de papaína. El extracto crudo de proteasas se obtuvo a partir del látex de 'Mito' el cual fue resuspendido (1:1) en buffer acetato de Na 10 mM a pH 5,0; inmediatamente se precipitaron proteínas a pH 9,0 y luego con sulfato de amonio al 45%. Posteriormente se purificó en una columna de Sephadex G-100 y se obtuvieron tres fracciones: A, B y C; utilizando como sustrato caseína se midió la actividad enzimática específica (AEE). Se encontró que para la Fracción A la AEE fue de 87,74 nkat.mg-1proteína, para la Fracción B fue de 14,93 nkat.mg-1proteína y para la Fracción C fue de 16,13 nkat.mg-1proteína. La AEE de la fracción A frente a la de papaína de látex fresco de C. papaya fue 13,3 veces mayor. En el análisis electroforético (gel desnaturalizante, 12%) se observa para la fracción A dos bandas de proteínas teniendo una de ellas una 'relación de frente' semejante al estándar de papaína. Además, se observó que la fracción A (papaína de 'Mito') frente a diferentes concentraciones de caseína, usada como sustrato, presenta una curva sigmoidea michaeliana; a diferentes volúmenes de enzima se muestra un comportamiento lineal; tiene un pH óptimo a 7,5 y es activa hasta 60 ºC
Preliminary studies indicate that, the 'Mito' fresh latex, has a specific activity of papain from 1.84 times greater than that found in the latex of papaya, so the objective of this study was to purify and characterize 'Mito' fresh latex proteases that have activity of papain. The crude extract protease was obtained from the 'Mito' latex which was re-suspended (1:1) in 10 mM Na acetate buffer at pH 5.0; immediately proteins were precipitated at pH 9.0 and then with 45% ammonium sulfate. Subsequently, the proteins were purified on a Sephadex G-100 column and were three fractions: A, B and C. Using as a substrate casein, the enzymatic specific activity (ESA) was measured and was found to be the fraction A was 87.74 nkat.mg-1protein, for fraction B was 14.93 nkat.mg-1protein and for fraction C it was 16.13 nkat.mg-1protein. ESA of fraction A against papain of fresh latex of C. papaya was 13.3 times greater. Electrophoretic analysis (12% denaturant gel) shows for A fraction, two protein bands having one of them a relation similar to the papain standard. In addition, there was observed that the A fraction (papain of 'Mito') against different concentrations of casein, used as a substrate, displays a michaeliane sigmoid curve; different volumes of enzyme shows a linear behavior; it has an optimum pH of 7.5 and is active up to 60 °C

Subject terms:

Hills of Peru / Lomas de Perú - wild papaya / papaya silvestre - latex / látex - papain / papaína - Vasconcellea candicans (A. Gray) / Vasconcella candicans (A. Gray) - AGRICULTURE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY - AGRONOMY

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Influencia de antioxidantes en la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite de chia (Salvia hispanica L.) por rancimat / Influence of antioxidants on oxidative stability of the oil Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) by rancimat
Eudes, Villanueva;Gilbert, Rodríguez;Elza, Aguirre;Víctor, Castro
Academic Journal Academic Journal | Scientia Agropecuaria. 8(1):19-27 Please log in to see more details
La rancidez oxidativa, conocida como autooxidación, es la principal causa de deterioro... more
Influencia de antioxidantes en la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite de chia (Salvia hispanica L.) por rancimat / Influence of antioxidants on oxidative stability of the oil Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) by rancimat
Scientia Agropecuaria. 8(1):19-27
La rancidez oxidativa, conocida como autooxidación, es la principal causa de deterioro de aceites y grasas, la que puede controlarse mediante el empleo de antioxidantes incrementando la estabilidad oxidativa y vida en anaquel. El aceite de chía es rico en ácidos grasos poli-insaturados (PUFAs), particularmente en omega-3 (ω-3) y omega-6 (ω-6) beneficiosas para la salud humana, pero también los PUFAs favorecen a la reacción de autooxidación. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de antioxidantes sintéticos y de origen natural a concentración de 200 ppm de etoxiquina (EQ), butilhidrixianisol (BHA), butilhidroxitolueno (BHT) y fortium (FT), sobre el índice de estabilidad oxidativa (OSI) del aceite de chía por rancimat a diferentes temperaturas (90, 100 y 110 °C). El método rancimat está incluido en los estándares AOCS Cd 12b-92, debido a su facilidad de uso y reproducibilidad permite evaluar el OSI en un periodo relativamente corto. Los resultados muestran que entre el BHT y EQ, así como entre el BHA y FT no presentan diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p ≤ 0,05). Siendo el BHT el antioxidante que incrementó en mayor proporción el OSI del aceite de chía, con un factor de protección (FP) de 1,30, 1,26 y 1,29 para las diferentes temperaturas aplicadas y con una energía de activación (Ea) de 82,75 kJ/mol, por lo tanto, se recomendaría su uso.
Oxidative rancidity, known as autoxidation, is the main cause of deterioration of oils and fats, which can be controlled by the use of antioxidants increasing oxidative stability and shelf life. Chia oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly omega-3 (ω-3) and omega-6 (ω-6) beneficial to human health, but PUFAs also favor the reaction of Autoxidation. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants at the concentration of 200 ppm of ethoxyquin (EQ), butylhydrixyanisol (BHA), butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) and fortium (FT), on the oxidative stability index (OSI) of chia oil per rancimat at different temperatures (90, 100 and 110 °C). The rancimat method is included in the AOCS Cd 12b-92 standards, because of its ease of use and reproducibility allows evaluating the OSI in a relatively short period. The results show that between BHT and EQ, as well as between BHA and FT, did not present a statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05). The BHT being the antioxidant that increased the chia oil OSI, with a protection factor (PF) of 1.30, 1.26 and 1.29 for the different temperatures applied and with an activation energy (Ea) of 82.75 kJ / mol, therefore, its use would be recommended.

Subject terms:

aceite de chía / chia oil - índice de estabilidad oxidativa / oxidative stability index - factor de protección / protection factor - energía de activación / activation energy - rancimat / rancimat - AGRICULTURE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY - AGRONOMY

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Vulnerabilidade à perda de solo na microbacia Lajeado Pessegueiro, Brasil
Ludmila Nascimento Machado;Arcângelo Loss;Ivan Luiz Zilli Bacic;Denilson Do...
Academic Journal Academic Journal | Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 8, Iss 2, Pp 159-168 (2017) Please log in to see more details
Geotechnologies present as an important to ol in identifying vulnerable areas, assisti... more
Vulnerabilidade à perda de solo na microbacia Lajeado Pessegueiro, Brasil
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 8, Iss 2, Pp 159-168 (2017)
Geotechnologies present as an important to ol in identifying vulnerable areas, assisting in land vulnerability mapping, allowing the spatial distribution of risks caused by soil loss. This study aimed to identify and diagnose the vulnerability of the soil in the Lajeado Pessegueiro watershed, Guaru já do Sul, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, based on the strengths and weaknesses of the environment, to provide input for the planning and environmental and economic management. The vulnerability mapping was developed through integrated environmental analysi s with many variables and with the use of a geographic information system that allows the spatial distribution of risk through thematic maps, which can assist in the planning and management of the river basin and farms placed in it. The methodology uses th e delimitation of landscape units, and assigns to each thematic variable a value of stability (ranging from 1 to 3) in thematic maps (physiographic, pedological, use and occupation of land and slope). The vulnerability map of soil loss was drawn from the i ntegration of physiographic maps, slope, soil conditions and use and occupation of land. The results showed the predominance with 51.98% of averagely stable/vulnerable areas in watershed and this occurrence is associated mainly by the presence of a balance between the morphogenesis and pedogenesis processes. The results obtained can be used in the development of prevention and enforcement practices and soil management aimed at decreasing soil loss.

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Agriculture - Agriculture (General)

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Forage maize nutritional quality according to organic and inorganic fertilization
Alejandro Moreno-Reséndez;Jesús Enrique Cantú Brito;José Luis Reyes-Carrill...
Academic Journal Academic Journal | Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 8, Iss 2, Pp 127-135 (2017) Please log in to see more details
The research was conducted on a commercial land plot from the ejido Granada, municipal... more
Forage maize nutritional quality according to organic and inorganic fertilization
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 8, Iss 2, Pp 127-135 (2017)
The research was conducted on a commercial land plot from the ejido Granada, municipality of M atamoros, Coahuila, situated inside the Comarca Lagunera, from April to August 2015, in order to establish the effect of two fertilization sources – organic and inorganic, upon the nutritional quality of forage maize during the spring - summer cycle with a r andomized block experimental design. T 1 = Acadian soil +Acadian foliage (marine algae extracts) and T 2 = Regional control, with 16 replications. The evaluated variables were the nutritional quality of forage maize and the milk production (L•t - 1 dry matter an d L•ha - 1 ). Due to the effect of the evaluated treatments, statistical differences were registered, both for, nutritional values of forage maize, such as: neutral and acid detergent fiber, non - fiber carbohydrates, total digestible nutrients, total net energ y for lactation and for milk production, in favor of organic fertilization. Therefore, it can be concluded that fertilizers of marine origin applied to forage maize increased both nutritional quality of forage maize and milk yield per ton of dry matter and per hectare of this forage.

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Producción de polihidroxialcanoatos por bacterias halófilas nativas utilizando almidón de cáscaras de Solanum tuberosum L.
César Guzmán;Alberto Hurtado;Carmen Carreño;Indira Casos
Academic Journal Academic Journal | Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 8, Iss 2, Pp 109-118 (2017) Please log in to see more details
The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of starch Solanum tuberosum L... more
Producción de polihidroxialcanoatos por bacterias halófilas nativas utilizando almidón de cáscaras de Solanum tuberosum L.
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 8, Iss 2, Pp 109-118 (2017)
The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of starch Solanum tuberosum L. “potato” peels for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHA, from native halophilic bacteria as an alternative to reduce production costs of these biopolymers, possible replacements for petrochemical plastics. The bacteria were isolated of water samples of eight saline Lamba yeque region and were enriched in HM 1 broth at 30 °C with 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 g 100 mL - 1 NaCl. Dilutions were performed subsequently, aliquots were taken and plated on HM 1 agar, 203 isolates of halophilic bacteria were obtained, they were grown in HM 2 broth with 10 g.L - 1 glucose as carbon source and the 38.92% of the isolates showed PHA granules stained by Sudan Black B. Twenty bacteria with PHA granules in 65 – 75% over carried to fermentation, reaching between 0.174 to 0.889 g . g - 1 of yield Y (p / x). Three isolates were selected with the highest values among which Halomonas sp M4C1 grew and synthesized PHA in HM 2 broth with 5, 10, 15 and 20 g . L - 1 of starch as carbon source, reaching 0.019; 0.016; 0.007 y 0.006 g . L - 1 of PHA, with 0.177; 0.111; 0.056 an d 0.066 g . L - 1 of biomass after 20, 40, 24 and 16 hours respectively. The highest yield of 0.144 g . g - 1 corresponded to 10 g . L - 1 of starch demonstrating that this concentration is feasible PHA production by native halophilic bacteria.

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Reserva de carbono en un sistema silvopastoril compuesto de Pinus patula y herbáceas nativas
Manuel Oliva;Lorenzo Culqui Mirano;Santos Leiva;Roicer Collazos;Rolando Sal...
Academic Journal Academic Journal | Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 8, Iss 2, Pp 149-157 (2017) Please log in to see more details
La investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar la reserva de carbono retenida bajo un ... more
Reserva de carbono en un sistema silvopastoril compuesto de Pinus patula y herbáceas nativas
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 8, Iss 2, Pp 149-157 (2017)
La investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar la reserva de carbono retenida bajo un sistema silvopastoril con Pinus patula , localizado en Amazonas, Perú. Para la estimación de carbono se utilizaron 06 plantas mediante el método directo, los fustes fueron seccionados cada 2 metros y a partir de estos se obtuvieron muestras de 5 cm de espesor previo al pesaje total. Para las ramas y hojas se realizó el pesaje total y se seleccionaron muestras de 200 g. Para la recolección de muestras de hojarasca y herbáceas nativas, se utilizó el mé todo del cuadrante y las muestras de suelo se recolectaron alrededor de cada planta. Los datos fueron obtenidos mediante la formulación de ecuaciones alométricas y selección de la mayor correlación estimada, a partir de variables como diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP) y altura del fuste (AF). Como resultado, se encontró 92,13 t/ha de carbono almacenado y 337,20 t/ha de carbono equivalente. Además, la investigación permitió establecer una ecuación que ayudó a estimar la cantidad de carbono y CO 2 en pino p átula: Biomasa seca = 0,6575*DAP 1,1794 (r 2 = 0,91 ).

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Agriculture - Agriculture (General)

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Prediction of beef marblingusing Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR)
Victor Aredo;Lía Velásquez;Raúl Siche
Academic Journal Academic Journal | Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 8, Iss 2, Pp 169-174 (2017) Please log in to see more details
The aim of this study was to build a model to predict the beef marbling using HSI and ... more
Prediction of beef marblingusing Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR)
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 8, Iss 2, Pp 169-174 (2017)
The aim of this study was to build a model to predict the beef marbling using HSI and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR). Totally 58 samples of longissmus dorsi muscle were scanned by a HSI system (400 - 1000 nm) in reflectance mode, using 44 samples to build t he PLSR model and 14 samples to model validation. The Japanese Beef Marbling Standard (BMS) was used as reference by 15 middle - trained judges for the samples evaluation. The scores were assigned as continuous values and varied from 1.2 to 5.3 BMS. The PLSR model showed a high correlation coefficient in the prediction (r = 0.95), a low Standard Error of Calibration (SEC) of 0.2 BMS score, and a low Standard Error of Prediction (SEP) of 0.3 BMS score.

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Agriculture - Agriculture (General)

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Estudo florístico de plantas daninhas em cultivos de melancia na Savana de Roraima, Brasil
José de Anchieta Alves Albuquerque;Thatyele Sousa dos Santos;Thaís Santiago...
Academic Journal Academic Journal | Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 8, Iss 2, Pp 91-98 (2017) Please log in to see more details
The municipality of Bon fim is the second largest watermelon producer in the state and... more
Estudo florístico de plantas daninhas em cultivos de melancia na Savana de Roraima, Brasil
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 8, Iss 2, Pp 91-98 (2017)
The municipality of Bon fim is the second largest watermelon producer in the state and the incidence of weeds is as one of the factors that most affect the quality and crop productivity. The objective of this work was to study floristically weeds in watermelon crops in the munici pality of Bonfim, in Roraimense savannah. The survey was conducted in 10 properties with an area of around 40 ha commercial planting watermelon. To collect the weeds used a square cast iron with dimensions of 0.50 x 0.50 m, being released randomly in the area. They were identified to genus, species, family and botany class. the phytosociological parameters were calculated: frequency, density, abundance, relative frequency, relative density, relative abundance and relative importance value index. There wer e also evaluated the life cycle, growth habit, propagation method and the photosynthetic pathway of invasive species. The composition of the infesting weed community in the raised area was considered heterogeneous, with 17 species in 10 plant families. Fam ilies with higher incidence were Poaceae and Fabaceae. The Digitaria and Sida genres had the highest number of species. Most of the identified weed spreads only by seed have annual life cycle and the C3 photosynthetic pathway.

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Agriculture - Agriculture (General)

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Influência do tamanho da semente na germinação e vigor de plântulas de populações de Camu-Camu
Olisson Mesquita Souza;Oscar Jose Smiderle;Aline das Graças Souza;Edvan Alv...
Academic Journal Academic Journal | Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 8, Iss 2, Pp 119-125 (2017) Please log in to see more details
Camu - camu ( Myr ciaria dubia ) is a fruit species native to the Amazon and its econo... more
Influência do tamanho da semente na germinação e vigor de plântulas de populações de Camu-Camu
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 8, Iss 2, Pp 119-125 (2017)
Camu - camu ( Myr ciaria dubia ) is a fruit species native to the Amazon and its economic importance is proven because the fruit contains high content of ascorbic acid. The objective of this work was to evaluate the germination and vigor of seedlings obtained from seeds of d ifferent sizes of two camu - camu populations. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme of 2 x 3 (two provenances river Anauá and river Urubu and three seed sizes, small, medium and large) with 5 replicates of 20 seeds per plot . The seeds of the origin of the Anauá river presented higher mass (1.46 g) compared to the origin of the Urubu river (0.78 g). The speed and emergence of seed germination presented better values for the population of the Anauá river, justifying the adopti on of choice of origin for the formation of seedlings. For root length, dry shoot mass and dry mass of the root system, the seeds classified as medium and large originated from the Anauá river presented higher values. The size of the seeds is an important character to be used in the production of Myrciaria dubia seedlings. The seeds of the origin of the Anauá river are potentially more vigorous are indicate for the production of camu - camu ( Myrciaria dubia ) seedlings.

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Agriculture - Agriculture (General)

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Antecipação e retardamento de colheita nos teores de óleo e proteína das sementes de soja, cultivar Valiosa RR
Everton Luis Finoto;Tuneo Sediyama;José de Anchieta Alves de Albuquerque;Ma...
Academic Journal Academic Journal | Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 8, Iss 2, Pp 99-107 (2017) Please log in to see more details
The objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological quality and oil and prote... more
Antecipação e retardamento de colheita nos teores de óleo e proteína das sementes de soja, cultivar Valiosa RR
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 8, Iss 2, Pp 99-107 (2017)
The objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological quality and oil and prote in content of soybean seeds harvested in different stages of plant development and different periods of harvest delay. The cultivar studied was BRS Valiosa RR and the experimental design was of randomized blocks with three replications. Eleven treatments w ere established, constituting different times of harvest in the following stages: R 5,1 , R 5,3 , R 5,5 , R 6 , R 7,1 , R 7,3 , R 8,1 , R 9 , R 9+10days , R 9+20 days and R 9+30 days . The anticipation of the harvest was made possible through the application in predetermined s tages, of herbicide Diquat (400 g ha - 1 ) with manual coastal spray with nozzle "type fan" set to volume of 300 L ha - 1 . After the harvest it was done the evaluation of physiological quality of seeds and the determination of the levels of oil and protein. It was noted that the stadium R 7.1 was the harvest season that showed the highest percentage in the germination test, demonstrating that the anticipation of the harvest did not caused significant loss in seed vigor. At the grain filling stage, oil levels were lower and protein larger. Both stabilized from R 7.1 to the R 9 stadium and showed downward trend with the harvest delay.

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Agriculture - Agriculture (General)

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Desempeño del Phaseolus vulgaris bajo riego parcial cultivado en un sistema de respuesta hidrogravitrópica
Emil Cristhian Vega Ponce;Jesús Abel Mejía Marcacuzco
Academic Journal Academic Journal | Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 8, Iss 2, Pp 137-147 (2017) Please log in to see more details
In the experimental area of the UNALM (Lima - Perú) was evaluated on partial root - zo... more
Desempeño del Phaseolus vulgaris bajo riego parcial cultivado en un sistema de respuesta hidrogravitrópica
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 8, Iss 2, Pp 137-147 (2017)
In the experimental area of the UNALM (Lima - Perú) was evaluated on partial root - zone drying irrigation treatments (RPR300 and RPR500, ml) and full irrigation (RC300 a nd RC500, ml control), the impact of xylem potential ( x) and stomatal conductance (gs) in common bean plants ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivated in systems (pots) of hydrogravitropic response. A randomized complete block design with 12 plants/pots per trea tments was used in three replicates. To control the irrigation application and manage to maintain the x nonlethal conditions (< - 15 bars), a water - soil retention curve was generated. The values of gs before irrigation (between 217.18 and 268.67 mm m - 2 s - 1 ) showed that only RPR500 plants were maintained under optimal water conditions, despite low levels of x (between - 9.92 and - 7.33 bar); situation that could be attributed to the ability of the roots to balance those moments when half of these structures we re inside soil with low humidity, while the opposite half was favorable soil water level.

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Agriculture - Agriculture (General)

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nfluencia de antioxidantes en la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite de chia ( Salvia hispanica L .) por rancimat
Eudes Villanueva;Gilbert Rodríguez;Elza Aguirre;Víctor Castro
Academic Journal Academic Journal | Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 8, Iss 1, Pp 19-27 (2017) Please log in to see more details
La rancidez oxidativa, conocida como autooxidación, es la principal causa de deterioro... more
nfluencia de antioxidantes en la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite de chia ( Salvia hispanica L .) por rancimat
Scientia Agropecuaria, Vol 8, Iss 1, Pp 19-27 (2017)
La rancidez oxidativa, conocida como autooxidación, es la principal causa de deterioro d e aceites y grasas, la que puede controlarse mediante el empleo de antioxidantes incrementando la estabilidad oxidativa y vida en anaquel. El aceite de chía es rico en ácidos grasos poli - insaturados (PUFAs), particularmente en omega - 3 (ω - 3) y omega - 6 (ω - 6) beneficiosas para la salud humana, pero también los PUFAs favorecen a la reacción de autooxidación. E l objetivo de e ste trabajo fue determinar el efecto de antioxidantes sintéticos y de origen natural a concentración de 200 ppm de etoxiquina (EQ), butilhi drixianisol (BHA), butilhidroxitolueno (BHT) y fortium (FT), sobre el índice de estabilidad oxidativa (OSI) del aceite de chía por rancimat a diferentes temperaturas (90, 100 y 110 °C). El método rancimat está incluido en los estándares AOCS Cd 12b - 92, deb ido a su facilidad de uso y reproducibilidad permite evaluar el OSI en un periodo relativamente corto. Los resultados muestran que entre el BHT y EQ, así como entre el BHA y FT no presentan diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p ≤ 0,05). Siendo el BH T el antioxidante que incrementó en mayor proporción el OSI del aceite de chía, con un factor de protección (FP) de 1,30, 1,26 y 1,29 para las diferentes temperaturas aplicadas y con una energía de activación (Ea) de 82,75 kJ/mol, por lo tanto, se recomend aría su uso .

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Agriculture - Agriculture (General)

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Flavonoides extraídos de la cascara de naranja tangelo (Citrus reticulata x Citrus paradisi) y su aplicación como antioxidante natural en el aceite vegetal sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis) / Flavonoids extracted from orange peelings tangelo (Citrus...
Matilde, Tenorio Domínguez
Academic Journal Academic Journal | Scientia Agropecuaria. Oct 2016 7(4):419-431 Please log in to see more details
La investigación tuvo como objetivo obtener extractos de flavonoides de la cáscara de ... more
Flavonoides extraídos de la cascara de naranja tangelo (Citrus reticulata x Citrus paradisi) y su aplicación como antioxidante natural en el aceite vegetal sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis) / Flavonoids extracted from orange peelings tangelo (Citrus...
Scientia Agropecuaria. Oct 2016 7(4):419-431
La investigación tuvo como objetivo obtener extractos de flavonoides de la cáscara de naranja tangelo (Citrus reticulata x Citrus paradisi) y aplicarlos como, antioxidante natural en el aceite vegetal Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis). La información se obtuvo de las pruebas experimentales, que se realizó en siete etapas: caracterización física y química de la naranja tangelo y del aceite vegetal sacha inchi, obtención de los extractos de flavonoides por soxhlet , detección de los flavonoides de cada extracto por cromatografía de capa fina y cromatografía de papel, identificación y cuantificación de los flavonoides por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC), determinación de la capacidad antioxidante de cada extracto de flavonoide y finalmente se evaluó la actividad antioxidante en el aceite sacha inchi, del extracto que tuvo la mayor capacidad antioxidante, para lo cual se utilizó un diseño multifactorial con dos factores : extractos de flavonoides y concentración con tres niveles: 0,05%; 0,1% y 0,15% y 16 bloques que son los tiempos. Los resultados mostraron que en el extracto acuoso se encontró la mayor cantidad de flavonoides: 100,3724 mg/g, siendo la naringina con 81,1727 mg/g el flavonoide que se encontró en mayor proporción. A la concentración del 0,1% el extracto de flavonoide presentó el menor índice de peróxido a las 384 horas. Se concluye que los flavonoides presentes en la cascara de naranja tangelo pueden ser utilizados como extractos crudos sin necesidad de purificaciones parciales o totales, para conseguir aumentar la vida útil del aceite sacha inchi
The purpose of this research was to obtain extracts of flavonoids from orange tangelo peelings (Citrus reticulata x Citrus paradisi) and apply them as natural antioxidant to the vegetable oil Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis). The information was obtained from experimental tests which were made in seven steps: physical and chemical characterization of the orange tangelo and the sacha inchi oil; extraction of flavonoids by the Soxhlet extractor; detection of flavonoids in each extract through fine layer chromatography and paper chromatography; identification and quantification of flavonoids by high resolution chromatography liquid (HPLC); determination of the antioxidant capacity of each extract of flavonoid, and finally evaluation of the antioxidant activity in oil sacha inchi, of the extract with the higher level of antioxidant capacity using a multifactorial design with two factors: extracts of flavonoids and concentration at three levels: 0.05%; 0.1% and 0.15%, and 16 blocks which are the times. The results showed that the liquid extract had the greatest quantity of flavonoids: 100.3724 mg/g, being naringine with 81.1727 mg/g, the flavonoid found in greatest proportion. At a concentration of 0.1%, the extract of flavonoid showed the lowest index of peroxide at 384 hours. It is concluded that the flavonoids present in the orange tangelo peeling can be used as raw extracts, without needing partial or total purification, to increase the sacha inchi oil life

Subject terms:

Naranja tangelo / Orange tangelo - sacha inchi / sacha inchi - flavonoide / flavonoid - capacidad antioxidante / antioxidant capacity - actividad antioxidante / antioxidant activity - AGRICULTURE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY - AGRONOMY

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Efeito do paclobutrazol sobre o crescimento de plantas e produzção de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.) em ambiente protegido / Paclobutrazol effect on plant growth and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production in protected environment
Alexsander, Seleguini;Eduardo, Pradi Vendruscolo;Luiz, Fernandes Cardoso Ca...
Academic Journal Academic Journal | Scientia Agropecuaria. Oct 2016 7(4):391-399 Please log in to see more details
Objetivou-se estudar, para o híbrido AF 7631 o efeito de três concentrações de paclobu... more
Efeito do paclobutrazol sobre o crescimento de plantas e produzção de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.) em ambiente protegido / Paclobutrazol effect on plant growth and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production in protected environment
Scientia Agropecuaria. Oct 2016 7(4):391-399
Objetivou-se estudar, para o híbrido AF 7631 o efeito de três concentrações de paclobutrazol (0, 50 e 100 mg ia L-1) e dois métodos de aplicação (embebição de sementes e aplicação em mudas), sobre o desenvolvimento de plantas, produção e qualidade de frutos de tomateiro, em ambiente protegido, no período de primavera/verão. O ensaio foi conduzido, na Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão da UNESP Ilha Solteira (SP). Os métodos de aplicação e o incremento das concentrações de PBZ não alteraram significativamente a produtividade, entretanto, o tratamento das mudas, via rega, 15 dias após a semeadura, com concentrações crescentes de PBZ induziu a reduções lineares na altura de plantas avaliadas aos 17, 34, 51 e 65 dias após o transplantio (DAT), na taxa de crescimento absoluto da altura no intervalo entre o 17 e 34 DAT, na altura de inserção de primeiro cacho e fitomassa seca de folhas e hastes. Independentemente do método de aplicação de PBZ, o aumento das concentrações reduziu significativamente o vigor das brotações laterais e aumentou a produção de frutos pequenos. As condições climáticas, principalmente, a temperatura, impossibilitaram a expressão do máximo potencial produtivo da cultura
The objective was to study, for hybrid AF 7631, the effect of three concentrations of paclobutrazol (0, 50 and 100 mg ai L-1) and two application methods (soaking seeds and seedlings application) on the development of plants, production and fruit quality of tomato in greenhouse in the spring / summer period. The trial was conducted the Finance Teaching, Research and Extension UNESP Ilha Solteira (SP). Application methods and the increase in PBZ concentrations did not significantly alter the productivity, however, the treatment of seedlings, via irrigation, 15 days after sowing, with increasing concentrations of PBZ induced linear reductions in plant height evaluated at 17, 34, 51 and 65 days after transplanting (DAT) in absolute growth rate of height in the range between 17 and 34 DAT at the time of first cluster of insertion and dry weight of leaves and stems. Regardless of PBZ application method, the concentrations significantly reduced the effect of side shoots and increased production of small fruit. The climatic conditions, especially temperature, prevented the expression of the maximum yield potential of the crop

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Solanum lycopersicum L / Solanum lycopersicum L - produtividade / yield - regulador de crescimento / growth regulators - AGRICULTURE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY - AGRONOMY

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Methylxanthine and catechin content of fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa beans, and cocoa liquor
Pedro P, Peláez;Inés, Bardón;Pedro, Camasca
Academic Journal Academic Journal | Scientia Agropecuaria. Oct 2016 7(4):355-365 Please log in to see more details
The theobromine and catechin content can affect the quality of cocoa liquor and is inf... more
Methylxanthine and catechin content of fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa beans, and cocoa liquor
Scientia Agropecuaria. Oct 2016 7(4):355-365
The theobromine and catechin content can affect the quality of cocoa liquor and is influenced by cacao variety, production area (PA), and fermentation, as well as the method of drying beans (FDB) and cocoa liquor production (CLP). This study examined variations in methylxanthine and catechin levels in fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa grains, and in cocoa liquor from Trinitario, Criollo, and Forastero cacao varieties. A total of 123 cocoa bean samples from three Peruvian PAs at different altitudes, Tingo María (TM), San Alejandro (SA), and Curimana (CU), were evaluated. The theobromine (Tb) and caffeine (Cf) contents in fresh cocoa beans were affected by both cocoa type and PA. The caffeine content was higher in Trinitario cacao than in Criollo and Forastero varieties (p ≤ 0.05). The Tb and CF contents decreased in dry cocoa grain and was affected by FDB (p ≤ 0.05) (1.449 ± 0.004 to 1.140 ± 0.010 and 0.410 ± 0.03 to 0.165 ± 0.02 g Tb and C, respectively, per 100 g dry weight). Cocoa beans from Tingo María, which has the highest altitude, had higher Tb and CF contents than those from other PAs. The catechin (C) and epicatechin (EC) contents were affected by the FDB and CLP, and were highest in fresh cocoa beans from the Tingo María area (range: 0.065 ± 0.01 to 0.020 ± 0.00 g C/100 g). The C and EC contents decreased during FDB and CLP (0.001 g C/100 g of cocoa liquor). Taken together, these results show that higher concentrations of Tb, Cf, C, and EC are present in fresh cocoa beans. Moreover, the cocoa variety influenced cocoa liquor quality. Overall, cocoa from the Tingo María PA had the most desirable chemical composition

Subject terms:

HPLC - methylxanthines - theobromine - caffeine - catechin - epicatechin - cocoa - AGRICULTURE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY - AGRONOMY

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La agrobiodiversidad en várzea y su función económica en la Amazonía Peruana / Agrobiodiversity in the floodplains and its economic function in the Peruvian Amazon
Michelly, Rios Arévalo;Edwin, Camacho Palomino
Academic Journal Academic Journal | Scientia Agropecuaria. Oct 2016 7(4):377-389 Please log in to see more details
El artículo tiene como objeto estudiar la práctica sostenible y la función económica d... more
La agrobiodiversidad en várzea y su función económica en la Amazonía Peruana / Agrobiodiversity in the floodplains and its economic function in the Peruvian Amazon
Scientia Agropecuaria. Oct 2016 7(4):377-389
El artículo tiene como objeto estudiar la práctica sostenible y la función económica de la agrobiodiversidad en los ambientes más inestables de la várzea, las 'playas' y 'barreales'. El estudio fue realizado en siete comunidades del 'Sector Muyuy' próximo a la ciudad de Iquitos en 2004. Este estudio también compara la agrobiodiversidad de una comunidad en 1999. La metodología usada es el mismo aplicado por el Proyecto 'People, Land Management and Environmental Change' de la Universidad de las Naciones Unidas, que prioriza la experimentación, demostración y explicación de los sistemas agrícolas por los propios agricultores. Los resultados muestran que los sistemas agrícolas en playas y barreales varían según el tipo de sedimentación anual. En 2004 se promocionó el crédito agrícola para arroz. La agrobiodiversidad en playas y barreales fue constituida por 9 cultivos en 1999 y 2 cultivos en 2004. La diversidad aumenta con los cultivos inundados por el rio, generando ambientes de protección y alimentación de diferentes peces y la tortuga cupiso. Los sistemas agrícolas empleados contienen estrategias de minimización del riesgo sobre el 'pulso del rio', utilizándose generalmente cultivos de corto periodo vegetativo en las áreas de mayor riesgo de inundación. Finalmente, la función económica de la agrobiodiversidad está direccionada al consumo y a la comercialización. La diversidad acuática genera un complemento económico para los agricultores
The aim of the article is to study the sustainable practice and the economic role of the agricultural biodiversity in the more unstable environments of the floodplains, the 'sand bars' and 'silt bars'. The study was carried out in seven communities of the 'Setor Muyuy' near the town of Iquitos in 2004. This study also compares the agrobiodiversity of a community in 1999. The methodology used is the same applied by the 'People, Land Management and Environmental Change' from United Nations University, which prioritizes experimentation, demonstration and explication of the agricultural systems by farmers themselves. The results show the agricultural systems of sand bars and silt bars vary according to the type of annual sediment. In 2004, agricultural credit is promoted for rice. The agricultural biodiversity in sand bars and silt bars comprised 9 cultures in 1999 and 2 cultures in 2004. The diversity increases among cultures inundated by the river, generating an environment of protection and food for different fish and turtles. The agricultural system have strategies for the minimization of the risk of 'river pulse', generally with species cultivated have a short vegetative in the areas of greatest risk of flooding. Finally, the economic role of agricultural biodiversity is aimed for consumption and commercialization. The aquatic diversity generates a complementary economy for the agricultural workers

Subject terms:

playas / sand bars - barreales / silt bars - sistemas agrícolas / agricultural systems - crédito agrícola / agricultural credit - riesgos / risks - AGRICULTURE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY - AGRONOMY

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Early growth of camu-camu plants with nitrogen fertilization through fertirrigation
Carlos, Abanto-Rodríguez;Edvan, Alves-Chagas;Teresinha, Costa-Silveira de A...
Academic Journal Academic Journal | Scientia Agropecuaria. Oct 2016 7(4):467-376 Please log in to see more details
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of nitrogen ... more
Early growth of camu-camu plants with nitrogen fertilization through fertirrigation
Scientia Agropecuaria. Oct 2016 7(4):467-376
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of nitrogen (N), applied via fertirrigation, on the initial growth components of the camu-camu plants. It was conducted with the use of a randomized block experimental design with 5 treatments: 0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg ha-1 of N, eight replicates and seven plants per experimental parcel. The experiment lasted for a period of 270 days. The diameter of stem (mm) and the height of the plant (cm) were evaluated every 30 days and the number of branches and total length of branches (cm) were evaluated every 90 days. At the end of the experiment, chlorophyll a index, dry mass of the leaves (g), dry mass of the branches (g), dry mass of the roots (g), total dry mass (g), and the Dickson Quality Index (DQI) were evaluated. According to the results, camu-camu plants that did not receive nitrogen fertilization had a lower initial growth and the doses of N significantly influenced all parameters evaluated in the camu-camu plants, including parameters from a linear and a quadratic model. The dose of 123 kg ha-1 of N, applied via fertirrigation, produced better quality camu-camu plants. Furthermore, greater doses caused depressive effects on growth of camu-camu plants in the first year of cultivation in firm ground conditions and the indirect measurement of chlorophyll a index in camu-camu plants was suitable for the assessment of nutritional status in relation to N

Subject terms:

Myrciaria dubia - nitrogen - Dickson quality index - chlorophyll a index - AGRICULTURE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY - AGRONOMY

Content provider:

SciELO
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