Scientia Agropecuaria. jul-sep2019, Vol. 10 Issue 3, p433-448. 16p.
Hunting is an important subsistence activity in the Amazon. Wild meat is a source of food and income for extended population sectors, being part of the local economies. Non sustainable extraction of wild meat affects diverse species, even towards extinction. Supply and demand play a key role on the extraction levels of wild meat, having prices a significant influence over hunting levels. Both the market and law enforcement must operate together to guarantee sustainable extraction and wildlife protection. It is urgent to design realistic and applicable wildlife management policies taking into consideration social and economic aspects, monitoring and resource conservation promotion. The objective of this review is to show the problems surrounding wild meat consumption in regions with tropical forests, to highlight the market influence on extraction levels and to systematize information for proper dissemination. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
AMAZON Web Services Inc. - WILDLIFE conservation - SUPPLY & demand - INFORMATION dissemination - INFLUENCER marketing - WILDLIFE management - TROPICAL forests
Scientia Agropecuaria. jul-sep2019, Vol. 10 Issue 3, p429-432. 4p.
Fiber from alpacas represents a substantial component of economic output for South American countries. In this study it determined the textile characteristics of fibers obtained from Huacaya alpacas raised at the South American Camelids Research and Development Center-Lachocc (CRDC-Lachocc) located at The National University of Huancavelica (UNH). Fleece samples were obtained from the midside rib area of 74 white alpacas (42 females and 32 males) of varying ages. The Average Fiber Diameter (AFD), Standard Deviation of the Average Fiber Diameter (SDAFD), Fiber Diameter Coefficient of Variation (FDCV), Comfort Factor (CF) and Staple Length (SL) were measured as textile characteristics and related to sex and age group. Most of the fleece samples could be classified as baby alpaca fleece according to the Peruvian Technical Standard classification (231.301.2014). Sex had no influence on any textile characteristic (p > 0.05). Meanwhile, age affected only AFD and CF (p < 0.05). Together the results indicated that alpacas farmed at CRDC-Lachocc had good potential to produce high quality fibers. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAND Corp. - ALPACA - SEXUAL dimorphism - STANDARD deviations - AGE groups - WOOL
Scientia Agropecuaria. jul-sep2019, Vol. 10 Issue 3, p423-427. 5p.
The population growth, the expansion of the city and the increase of the automotive park of the canton Cuenca has caused a deterioration in air quality, which puts at risk the agricultural production in the nearby rural areas, the objective of the present study was to determine the concentration of Pb in the foliage of cabbage lettuces in the San Joaquín parish. Twelve lettuces of cabbage were planted in two beds that were located in open-pit and greenhouse conditions with a common substrate soil for the development of the plants, the substrate was characterized, the results showed that the content of lead in the foliage of the Lettuce came mostly from the air. At the time of harvest, foliage samples were sent for the analysis of the Pb content by the atomic absorption method, the lowest value corresponded to the greenhouse crop with an average of 0,066 mg / kg, while the open crop obtained value of 0,087 mg / kg, according to the independent T-test, there is no significant statistical difference, these values of lead concentration are below the limits established by the World Health Organization, which is considered that lettuces they are not contaminated with Pb associated with vehicles and fuels. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
CUENCA (Ecuador) - WORLD Health Organization - BOK choy - AGRICULTURAL productivity - HARVESTING time - SOIL formation - PLANT development - LEAD toxicology - LETTUCE - GREENHOUSE plants
Scientia Agropecuaria. jul-sep2019, Vol. 10 Issue 3, p413-422. 10p.
An in vitro methodology to estimate the effects of root-growth promotion of soils treated with organic matter and microbial inoculants, in crops, under integrated nutrient management (INM), was developed and validated against data from previous experiments. A soil was prepared with two treatments: a) Control with application of deionized water, and b) INM, comprising the application of humic substances and microbial inoculant. Treated soils were incubated for 72 hours and extracted using five soil to water extraction ratios: 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5. Extracts were analyzed for pH and electrical conductivity (EC). Radish and wheat seeds were germinated and irrigated with each solution. Analysis of Variance, Regression and Correlation analyses were performed. Treatment and extraction ratio significantly affected pH and EC of the soil extracts. The application of extracts from soils under INM significantly affected the growth of radish radicles. The growth of radicle and coleoptile of wheat seeds increased when increasing soil proportion in the extract. Maximum growth was obtained with ratios between 1:5 and 2:5. In validation experiments wheat seed growth significantly correlated with soil organic matter content and enzymatic activity, confirming that this method is sensitive to estimate growth- promoting effects. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Scientia Agropecuaria. jul-sep2019, Vol. 10 Issue 3, p403-411. 9p.
This research proposes a methodology to detect and quantify in real time the presence of Salmonella sp. in llama meat (Llama glama) using qPCR, the method was validated through the plate count. The method consisted of detecting the presence or absence of Salmonella sp. in llama meat samples, the positive results were identified by the Rapid ONE accelerated biochemical system, finally the identification results were confirmed by real-time PCR, using a forward and reverse primer of the invA gene, as well as a fluorescent probe anchored to a fragment of the invA gene. Finally, 17 samples of llama meat were quantified, resulting in 53.13% of the samples being contaminated by Salmonella sp. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Scientia Agropecuaria. jul-sep2019, Vol. 10 Issue 3, p393-402. 10p.
The objective was to characterize the potential PGPR antagonist in the inhibition of mycelial development, conidia in F. oxysporum and spores in M. roreri . The PCR technique was used for the identification of F. oxysporum and M. roreri . Selecting the bacteria: Acinetobacter calcoaceticus BMR2-12, Klebsiella variicola BO3-4, Enterobacter asburiae BA4-19, Enterobacter asburiae PM3-14, Pseudomonas protegens CHA0, Pseudomonas veronii R4 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC-5540. Antagonistic activities were evaluated: a) Mycelial inhibition in F. oxysporum and M. roreri ; b) Reduction in production of conidia and spores for 12 and 15 days' post-incubation. The PCR confirmed the 670 bp amplification for F. oxysporum. The 750 bp sequencing defined a degree of similarity of 99% to M. roreri , when compared to the NCBI GenBank. The application of B. subtilis is of greater antagonistic activity to inhibition (mycelial and conidia) with (95 and 90%) to F. oxyporum. The activity of BO3-4 in M. roreri totally inhibits mycelial development and spore production 12 and 15 days post - incubation respectively. The selection of these biocontrollers and their application as a consortium will offer an alternative to benefit in the reduction of agrochemicals in the cultivation of tomato and cocoa. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Scientia Agropecuaria. jul-sep2019, Vol. 10 Issue 3, p383-391. 9p.
In the Mantaro Valley and high Andean areas of Peru, the pastures are established without weed control or sowed with companion crops (Barley). The sowing of the peas with pastures can mean greater productive advantages. The objective was to determine the establishment of an association of grasses and legumes sowed with densities of peas (Pisun sativum L.) cv "Remate" in the Mantaro valley, Peru. The study was conducted in IVITA (Veterinary Institute of Tropical and Height Research). The Mantaro valley is located at 3320 meters above sea level. The densities of the peas were 0.0; 25.0; 50.0 and 75.0 kg. ha-1, sowed on the ground with 28.0 kg. ha-1 of total seed of the pasture: 20.0 kg. ha-1 Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) cv "Tama"; 4.0 kg. ha-1 of red clover (Trifolium pratense) cv "Quiñequeli" and 4.0 kg. ha-1 of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cv "SW8210". We used Random Block Design with 3 repetitions. The response variables were botanical composition (%) and dry matter production (kg. ha-1). A good establishment result sowing 28.0 kg. ha-1 of pasture associated with 50.0 kg. ha-1 of peas, expressed in percentages higher than 90% in the botanical composition and reasonable productions of dry matter. (DM). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
PERU - ITALIAN ryegrass - RED clover - PASTURES - WEED control - PEAS - LEGUMES - ALFALFA
Scientia Agropecuaria. jul-sep2019, Vol. 10 Issue 3, p377-382. 6p.
The contamination of food by heavy metals in areas irrigated with contaminated water is of great concern due to the potential risk to human health. To assess the potential risk of Pb to children's health from consumption of cow's milk in an area of the Mantaro Valley during 2018. Fifty-one children exposed to Pb and eight samples of raw cow's milk were selected. Pb concentrations were analyzed with the atomic absorption spectrometer. The mean Pb content in milk was 0.236 ± 0.057 mg.kg-1, which exceeded the limits allowed by the Codex Alimentarius. The estimated daily intake of lead was 5.9 x 10-3 mg.kg-1day-1; the estimated risk index (HQ) was below one, which represents a low risk for children. The cancer risk was below 1.0 x 10-4. It is therefore concluded that there is no significant risk to children's health from consumption of cow's milk. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
CHILDREN'S health - MINE water - MILKING - MILK contamination - FOOD contamination - WATER pollution - LEAD toxicology
Scientia Agropecuaria. jul-sep2019, Vol. 10 Issue 3, p369-375. 7p.
A meta-analysis of the effect of selenium supplementation on tissue concentration in pigs was developed. 13 scientific articles were used, including 2114 animals. Under the random effects model effect size, heterogeneity and meta-regressions were determined. Supplementation generates a high concentration of selenium in kidney (2.51 ppm) and less amount in blood (0,151 ppm); muscle (0.189 ppm) and liver (0.564 ppm) have intermediate values. In addition, inorganic selenium resulted in higher concentrations in kidney (2.74 ppm) and blood (0.157 ppm), and the organic form allowed more selenium to be concentrated in liver (0.568 ppm) and muscle (0.237 ppm). However, the effect was not consistent among studies which was reflected by high values in the inconsistency test (>72%). The tissue concentration of selenium is affected by the number of repetitions, animals per experimental unit, individuals sampled per experimental unit and by the supplemented selenium level. This work concludes that organic and inorganic sources of selenium promote tissue retention; however, the concentration of this mineral is significantly affected by the factors mentioned above. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RANDOM effects model - LABORATORY animals - SELENIUM - META-analysis - MUSCLES
Scientia Agropecuaria. jul-sep2019, Vol. 10 Issue 3, p353-361. 9p.
The objective of this research was to evaluate the quality of the compost obtained from chicken manure, with inoculation of beneficial autochthonous microorganisms. The investigation was conducted for 13 weeks; At the field level, beneficial microbial consortia CMB1 of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and CMB2 of lemon verbena (Cymbopogon citratus) were extracted, which were inoculated once a week at 5% concentration in the compost piles distributed randomly in complete block with three repetitions. Three treatments T1 (CMB1), T2 (CMB2) and T3 (Control) were established. It was determined that beneficial microbial consortiums suppress odors in the composting process, at the same time accelerate the degradation of organic matter which is evidenced in the higher content of humic acids in the final compost compared to the control: T1 = (3-4%), T2 = (3%), (T3) = 1%. In the compost obtained with inoculation of CMB1 and CMB2, higher biological activity was determined: T1 = 3 ug/ml, T2 = 4 ug/ml, T3 = 1 ug/ml, in addition beneficial microorganisms in higher concentration were identified (log UFC.g-1) as well as higher nutrient content with respect to the control treatment, therefore, of superior quality. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Scientia Agropecuaria. jul-sep2019, Vol. 10 Issue 3, p347-351. 5p.
Quality is an important factor when positioning a product in the market, so it is necessary to have an efficient selection process. Currently there are expensive equipment that carry out the selection process that is not accessible to small businesses, it is therefore mentioned that a low-cost procedure is proposed through which the coffee bean selection process can be performed, using a library Real - time image processing for quality selection based on color and size (pixels on screen). A sample of 50kg of coffee was used for manual quality selection based on the proportion of colors (green, red, brown colors), size per grain that is classified into three categories (< 1 cm2, = 1 cm2, > 1 cm2). Then the same process was carried out on the same sample by using the image processing system based on color and size (pixels per screen by rows and columns for the calculation of the area of each grain) by a belt where 3 grains passed per second. The results referring to the color-based quality did not show a significant difference α = 0.05, but with respect to the time used, the selection process through image processing lasted one hour compared to the 2 hours of the manual process, therefore the selection of the Coffee beans using the image processing system is superior to the manual selection process. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Scientia Agropecuaria. jul-sep2019, Vol. 10 Issue 3, p337-345. 9p.
In this work the effect of the N fertilizer application season and the harvest period on the production and quality of strawberry fruits was evaluated. Strawberries cv 'Camino real' were planted an experimental plot in Morelia, Mexico under open field conditions. 5 mM of N was applied in the irrigation in different physiological stages of the crop: vegetative growth (E1), between the end of the first fruiting and the beginning of the second flowering (E2) without nitrogen (E3), during period from harvest. The red fruits of each plant were harvested and the production and quality parameters were evaluated. It was found that, the N application season modified the production, as the applications were later or N was not applied, the fruits decreased. The harvest period had an effect on the variables of production and fruit quality. The differences found in the different harvest periods were highly correlated with the climatic conditions. The acidity, total phenols concentration and total soluble solids were correlated positively with solar radiation and temperature. The concentration of anthocyanins was modified by both factors evaluated; which could be nutritionally benefic. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
FERTILIZER application - SOLAR radiation - FRUIT quality - CROP growth - STRAWBERRY quality - NITROGEN fertilizers - DEFICIT irrigation
Scientia Agropecuaria. jul-sep2019, Vol. 10 Issue 3, p327-336. 10p.
The objective of the research was to identify mycotoxigenic molds in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), Quinoa seeds were sown in the Coast (Lima) and the Sierra (Huancayo). The moisture content (9.22-15.89%) and the content of saponins (0.17- 1.67%) showed no significant differences between the accessions of Costa and Sierra. The quantification of molds in the Costa accessions showed high counts (75*104-10*104 cfu/g) and low counts in the Sierra (50-150 est. cfu/g), being statistically different. There is a negative linear relationship between the content of saponins and the count of molds and yeasts in both groups of accessions of quinoa. The genera identified in Costa include: Cladosporium (40%), Penicillium (30%), Aspergillus (20%) and Trichotecium (10%) and in Sierra: Cladosporium (50%), Penicillium (14%), Talaromyces (14%), Aspergillus (7%), Alternaria (7%) and Oidium (7%). The "total aflatoxins" for Aspergillus ochraceus (100H53) was 2.2 ppb and for Aspergillus fumigatus (235H70) it was 1.1-1.6 ppb. The "ochratoxin A" for Aspergillus ochraceus (100H53) was 3.7- 18.1 ppb and for Penicillium verrucosum (53H43 and 53H45) it was 1.0 and 1.1 ppb respectively. The "fumonisins" for Alternaria alternata (100H53) was 0.2 ppm, so all the mentioned molds are considered to be mycotoxigenic conditions that allow to establish conditions of control and prevention in foods. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Scientia Agropecuaria. jul-sep2019, Vol. 10 Issue 3, p315-325. 11p.
This research aimed to evaluate the adsorption process of CN- contained in synthetic aqueous solution, using activated carbon obtained from coffee residue; studying its efficiency and equilibrium and kinetic models. Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (DRX) and iodine number determination were performed to characterize activated carbon. A composite central design (DCC) with three factors adapted to three levels each and 6 central points was applied to study the effect of pH (A), contact time (B) and adsorbent dosage (C); According to the analysis of variance, all the main factors and the AA interaction were significant in the adsorption efficiency of cyanide on activated carbon, whose maximum value reached was 54.68% and 67.65% for the predictive level. According to the coefficient of determination (R2), Freundlich's isothermal model (0.954) and the three kinetic equations of pseudo second order (0.991, 0.993, 0.993) were adjusted to the experimental process. From the results obtained, the active carbon prepared from coffee residue can be used as a potential adsorbent of CN-, contained in aqueous solutions of low concentrations. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Scientia Agropecuaria. abr-jun2019, Vol. 10 Issue 2, p307-311. 5p.
The objective of the work was to determine the biodegradability potential of chicken litter in combination with a high concentration of propionate, using a microbial consortium previously adapted to high amounts of this metabolite. The chicken litter 3 % of total solids (TS) with 4895 ppm of propionate was degraded under mesophilic conditions using microcosms with a working volume of 250 mL. The accumulated methane yield results indicated triple sigmoidal behavior; which could be attributed to the difference in the degradation rates of the components, such as macromolecules and volatile fatty acids. The biochemical potential of methane was 364,52 mL CH4 gVSfeed-1. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Scientia Agropecuaria. abr-jun2019, Vol. 10 Issue 2, p293-302. 10p.
The aim objective was evaluated the effect of habitat change on some nutritional and functional characteristics of 16 accessions of quinoa with different content of saponins, collected in the Sierra of Cuzco (3237 m.a.s.l.) and cultivated in the Coast of Lima (235 m.a.s.l.) in Peru was evaluated. Quinoas were washed, dried and ground, for further analysis. The average amount of proteins (18.21±1.00%), ashes (3.33±0.51%) and total dietary fiber (12.94±1.40%), of the crops of the Coast, were significantly higher (p value <α (0.05)), than their original homologs of the Sierra (15.68±1.57%, 2.40±0.23% and 10.56±1.01% , respectively); while the average amount of Carbohydrates (69.74±1.32%), in vitro starch digestibility levels (46.97±23.40%) and in vitro protein digestibility levels (63.62 ± 4.32%), were significantly lower than the original quinoas of the Sierra (72.19±3.01%, 59.16±23.94%, 67.21±6.28%, respectively). Fat, fiber, total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity levels did not show significant changes when changing habitat. The habitat change is proved to be an influence on some nutritional and functional characteristics of the quinoa beans. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Scientia Agropecuaria. abr-jun2019, Vol. 10 Issue 2, p283-291. 9p.
Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) is an asteraceous plant native to the Andes that in recent years has received special attention for its nutritional and pharmacological properties. Its roots store fructans of inulin type with low degree of polymerization, also called fructooligosaccharides (FOS). The loss of FOS in the yacon reserve structures and the consequent decrease of its functional properties are directly related to the hydrolytic activity of the enzyme fructanexohydrolase (FEH). Yacon plants were obtained from the "Baños del Inca" experimental station, belonging to the National Institute of Agrarian Innovation (INIA). By examining four methods of extracting total RNA from the storage roots, better performance and quality were obtained with the modified CTAB method the designed primer sets and the RT-PCR technique generated overlapping fragments of the feh gene, as well as the 3'-end of the mRNA. The assembly of the fragments allowed to determine about 80 percent of the gene sequence and a 3'untranslated region. Construction of the phylogenetic showed a high degree of identity of the sequence with the 1-FEHs of: C. intybus (88.5 %), H. tuberosus (88.2 %), V. herbacea 86.5 %) and A. lappa (85 %). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Scientia Agropecuaria. abr-jun2019, Vol. 10 Issue 2, p275-282. 8p.
Eggs are sources of high nutritious value; however, their intake is associated with hypercholesterolemia in consumers. Stevia rebaudiana, among other properties, has a hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic effect in humans, rats and broilers chicken. The objectives of this research were to determine the effect of the inclusion of 0, 1, 2 and 3% of Stevia rebaudiana leaves powder in the diet on the lipid profile and productive parameters of Isa Brown hens. One hundred, 17 - 24 week old, Isa Brown laying hens were used and distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and five repetitions. The increase in the levels of powder from Stevia leaves decreased the cholesterol profile (p < 0.05), without changing other profiles and the productive parameters (p > 0.05). Additionally, the triglyceride profile and weight gain showed quadratic and negative linear tendencies, respectively associated with the increase of powder from Stevia leaves in the diet. It is concluded that the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, final weight and total weight gain of Isa Brown laying hens has a tendency to decrease when the levels of powder from Stevia leaves is increased in the diet. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Scientia Agropecuaria. abr-jun2019, Vol. 10 Issue 2, p265-274. 10p.
The objective of this work was to compare four varieties of potato (S. andigenum Hawkes, S. curtilobum Juz et Buk, S. juzepczukii Buk, S. stenotomum Just et Buk) in terms of phenology and yield under agroecological conditions of the Altiplano region. Peru. For this, phenological parameters were evaluated (description of the tuber, plant, leaf, flower, berries, flowering intensity and vegetative period) and productive (yield and number of tubers). The sample consists of 40 plants selected at random, which were planted in sandy loam soil, under traditional agronomic management and gravity irrigation. It was determined that the Ssp. andigenum Hawkes has the highest production (number and weight) in relation to the varieties studied. The vegetative period lasted between 169 to 183 days. It is concluded that the varieties studied are species of semi-late phenological cycle. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Scientia Agropecuaria. abr-jun2019, Vol. 10 Issue 2, p259-264. 6p.
The objective of the research was to establish a protocol of somatic embryogenesis induction in Castillo, Catuai and Costa Rica 95 coffee varieties. Two trials were installed, one for leaf disinfection and other for somatic embryogenesis induction. In the first experiment different concentrations of NaClO, immersion times and use of antioxidant solution were evaluated. The best disinfection treatment was 2% NaClO for 5 minutes. In the somatic embryogenesis induction, different types and concentrations of growth regulators were tested; three concentrations of BAP and KIN (2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 mg/L), three concentrations of 2,4-D (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L) were tested including combinations 2,4-D (0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 mg/L) + KIN (1.5 mg/L). Direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis was induced in only one culture medium from seventh week. The somatic embryogenesis rate reached values of 100% in the three varieties in some treatments. The average number of embryos/explant was 21.62, 26.84 and 7.4 in Castillo, Catuaí and Costa Rica 95 varieties, respectively. From the results, it was concluded that treatments with BAP, 2,4-D and 2,4-D+KIN induce embryogenesis according to coffee variety. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Scientia Agropecuaria. abr-jun2019, Vol. 10 Issue 2, p249-258. 10p.
The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of two grazing pressures on the availability of Brachiaria Decumbens forage. The research was carried out at the Quilichao Experimental Substation, of the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cauca, Colombia. Eight initial availabilities of 4 300, 4 400, 4 800, 4 900, 6 000, 7 200, 17 400 and 18 900 kg of MSV per hectare were evaluated two initial grazing pressures: low, 1000 PV / 100 kg MSV and high, 1500 kg PV / 100 kg MSV. The design was of random blocks, with four replicas. The area was divided into 12 subplots per treatment and forage availability was measured at the beginning, at 2, 4, 6, 22, 26, 30, 46, 54, 70, 74 and 96 h of grazing. Commercial bullocks of the zebu race were used, with an average weight of 350 kg. Results show that there are statistical differences (p < 0,05) between initial high and low grazing pressures. Therefore, it is concluded that, the higher the initial availability, the higher the percentage of leaf area and stems, but the lower percentage of dead material, however, the leaf stem ratio decreases as the initial availability increases. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Scientia Agropecuaria. abr-jun2019, Vol. 10 Issue 2, p241-248. 8p.
An experiment was conducted in La Molina, Lima, Peru, with the objective of evaluate the effect of planting densities (62 500 and 69 444 plants ha-1), nitrogen doses (180, 200 and 220 kg ha-1) and nitrogen splitting (two times: stages V3 (50%) and V7 (50%); and three times: stages V3 (20%), V7 (40%) and V12 (40%)), on the agronomic performance of the flint yellow corn hybrid EXP-05. The experiment used a completely random block design, in 2x3x2 factorial arrangement, with four replications. There was not significant effect of the interactions of the evaluated factors on growth and yield components. On the other hand, there was an individual effect of nitrogen doses and planting density on grain yield and stem diameter, respectively. The highest grain yield (10.639 t ha-1) was obtained with 200 kg ha-1 of N and the largest stem diameter (2.42 cm) with the lowest planting density (62 500 plants ha-1). Although the interaction of the evaluated factors was not significant, the highest grain yield (10.939 t ha-1) was obtained with 200 kg ha-1 of N, splitting in two stages which are V3 (50%) and V7 (50%) and using 69 444 plants ha-1. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]