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EUROPEAN Union - PROTEINS in animal nutrition - PARAMETER estimation - FEEDS - MICROSCOPY - ACQUISITION of data - ONLINE data processing - APPLICATION software
BioMed Research International; 7/29/2019, p1-11, 11p
This systematic review describes what "the cutting edge vaccines for Aeromonas hydrophila are". The focus is on types of high tech biotechnological based vaccines, target gene or antigen in developing these vaccines, and challenge model fish species used in vaccines efficacy testing. Vaccines delivery methods, immune response, and their efficacy, adjuvant or carrier systems used, and the overall experimental setup or design of the vaccines under investigation are also described. The search for the original papers published between 2009 and 2018 was conducted in June of 2018, using the PubMed and Google scholar electronic database. Twenty-three (23/4386) studies were included in the final assembly using PRISMA guidelines (Protocol not registered). Recombinant protein vaccines were the highly experimented type of the modern biotechnological based vaccines identified in the selected studies (16/23; 70%). Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of different β-barrels were shown to be a potential antigenic entity for A. hydrophila vaccines (57%). Intraperitoneal route with conventional carries or adjuvants was the highly applied delivery system while very few studies used herbal based vaccine adjuvants and nanomaterial as a vaccine carrier. Variation was observed in terms of protection levels in the selected studies. The experimental designs partly contributed to the observed variation. Therefore, recombinant vaccines that use new carrier system technologies and delivered through oral route in feeds would have been of great value for use in the prevention and control of A. hydrophila infections in fish. Despite the usefulness as academic tools to identify what is important in pathogenicity of the etiological agent to the host fish, these vaccines are only economically viable in very high-value animals. Therefore, if vaccination is a good option for A. hydrophila group, then simple autogenous vaccines based on accurate typing and evidence-based definition of the epidemiological unit for their use would be the most viable approach in terms of both efficacy and economic feasibility especially in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation on glucose homeostasis. The search process was based on the selection of publications listed in the Pubmed-Medline database until April 2016 to identify studies evaluating the impact of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides or oligofructose on glucose homeostasis. Twenty-nine trials were included in the systematic review and the meta-analysis was performed on twelve of these papers according to the inclusion criteria. Fasting blood concentrations of glucose and insulin were selected as pertinent criteria of glucose homeostasis for the meta-analysis. The consumption of fructo-oligosaccharides decreased fasting blood glycaemia levels, whatever the metabolic status (healthy, obese or diabetic) and diet (low-fat or high-fat) throughout the experiment. This reduction was linear with prebiotic dose (from 0 to 13% of the feed). Fasting insulinaemia also decreased linearly with fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation but the reduction was only significant in rodents fed a low-fat diet. Potential underlying mechanisms include gut bacterial fermentation of fructo-oligosaccharides to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and bacterial modulation of bile acids, both interacting with host metabolism. This systemic review, followed by the meta-analysis, provides evidence that fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation has a significant effect on glucose homeostasis whatever the health status and diet consumed by animals. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The energy content of ingredients is estimated from tabulated values, predictive equations, and in vivo bioassays. Numerous institutions and research centers have edited comprehensive tables to evaluate the nutritive value of ingredients in poultry diets. However, the energy values provided in these tables vary widely for most traditional raw materials, including protein meals, cereals, and lipid sources. Various reasons help to explain some of the discrepancies among sources but in most cases, the differences in energy reported are not justified. Predictive equations based on near-infrared reflectance (NIRS) technology are gaining popularity for energy estimation of dietary ingredients. Online regression equations facilitate feed formulation but often the equations available are not suitable for use under many practical conditions. In vivo trials conducted at research institutions and feed companies are valid sources of information, especially for non-traditional ingredients. However, in vivo tests are of limited use under most practical conditions. In summary, each of the methods described has advantages and disadvantages. Two priorities in poultry research are the standardization of the procedures used in the in vivo trials and the online implementation of simple methods, based on NIRS technology, to predict accurately the energy content of ingredients and feeds. Nutritionists and feed mill managers should be aware of the methodology used and their applicability before selecting any of the procedures reported in this review. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
POULTRY - DIET - RAW materials - RESEARCH institutes - IN vivo studies - READY meals - METABOLIZABLE energy values
People who avoid eating animals tend to share their homes with animal companions, and moral dilemma may arise when they are faced with feeding animal products to their omnivorous dogs and carnivorous cats. One option to alleviate this conflict is to feed pets a diet devoid of animal ingredients—a ‘plant-based’ or ‘vegan’ diet. The number of pet owners who avoid animal products, either in their own or in their pets’ diet, is not currently known. The objective of this study was to estimate the number of meat-avoiding pet owners, identify concerns regarding conventional animal- and plant-based pet food, and estimate the number of pets fed a plant-based diet. A questionnaire was disseminated online to English-speaking pet owners (n = 3,673) to collect data regarding pet owner demographics, diet, pet type, pet diet, and concerns regarding pet foods. Results found that pet owners were more likely to be vegetarian (6.2%; 229/3,673) or vegan (5.8%; 212/3,673) than previously reported for members of the general population. With the exception of one dog owned by a vegetarian, vegans were the only pet owners who fed plant-based diets to their pets (1.6%; 59/3,673). Of the pet owners who did not currently feed plant-based diets but expressed interest in doing so, a large proportion (45%; 269/599) desired more information demonstrating the nutritional adequacy of plant-based diets. Amongst all pet owners, the concern most commonly reported regarding meat-based pet foods was for the welfare of farm animals (39%; 1,275/3,231). The most common concern regarding strictly plant-based pet foods was regarding the nutritional completeness of the diet (74%; 2,439/3,318). Amongst vegans, factors which predicted the feeding of plant-based diets to their pets were concern regarding the cost of plant-based diets, a lack of concern regarding plant-based diets being unnatural, and reporting no concern at all regarding plant-based diets for pets. Given these findings, further research is warranted to investigate plant-based nutrition for domestic dogs and cats. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
PET food - VEGANISM - PET owners - ATTITUDE (Psychology) - ANIMAL nutrition
Background: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common reported tick-borne infection in Europe, and involves transmission of Borrelia by ticks. As long as a vaccine is not available and effective measures for controlling tick populations are insufficient, LB control is focused on preventive measures to avoid tick bites. To inform citizens about the risk of ticks, motivate them to check for tick bites, and encourage them to remove any attached tick as quickly as possible, a mobile app called 'Tekenbeet' (Dutch for 'tick bite') was developed and released. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usage and user satisfaction of the 'Tekenbeet' app and to investigate whether it affects users' knowledge, perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, self-efficacy, response efficacy, current behavior and intention to comply with preventive measures.Methods: Usage of the app was evaluated with data obtained from Google Analytics. A survey among the Dutch general adult population with two data collection periods evaluated the usage, user satisfaction and its influence on abovementioned outcomes.Results: Data obtained from Google Analytics showed the app was downloaded almost 40,000 in the 20 months following the launch. The 'tick radar' and 'tick diary' screens were viewed most often. In addition, a total of 554 respondents completed an online survey. The mean user satisfaction score was 7.44 (on a scale of 1-10) and 90.9% of respondents would recommend the app to others. On average, survey respondents who downloaded the app (n = 243) recorded significantly more often higher knowledge scores (OR 3.37; 95% CI 2.02-5.09) and had a higher intention to comply with preventive measures (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.22-5.85) compared to respondents who did not download the app (n = 311).Conclusions: The 'Tekenbeet' app is a frequently used and well-appreciated educational tool to increase public knowledge of ticks and tick bites. It also helps to improve the user's intention to apply preventive measures. The use of smartphones and apps is now commonplace in the Netherlands; the 'Tekenbeet' app feeds into this trend and thereby offers a modern day alternative to established formats such as an information leaflet and information provision on the Internet. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
NETHERLANDS - LYME disease - LYME disease treatment - TICK-borne diseases - TICK infestations - BORRELIA diseases - PATIENTS - LYME disease prevention - ANIMAL experimentation - BITES & stings - COMPARATIVE studies - CUSTOMER satisfaction - RESEARCH methodology - MEDICAL cooperation - RESEARCH - PILOT projects - EVALUATION research - MOBILE apps
Italian Journal of Animal Science, Vol 18, Iss 1, Pp 189-193 (2019)
Donkey milk is a valuable product for babies suffering from multiple-allergies and cosmetic production; therefore, new dairy donkey farms are opening around Europe. Little information is available for farmers on sustainable production of donkey milk, including animal welfare, milk production, and processing. Targeted dissemination of information on appropriate animal management would assist dairy donkey farmers in preventing welfare problems. This research project aims to develop guidelines on good practice principles for sustainable donkey milk production. Different steps were followed to develop the guidelines:identification of key issues for dairy donkey welfare, analysing the results of previous project and the available scientific literature; systematic review research to select promising solutions for each issue included in the guidelines; stakeholder consultation, in order to increase scientific soundness and to enhance their acceptability throughout the sector; guidelines drafting and revisions by stakeholders;5. guidelines launch.The guidelines ‘Dairy donkeys: good practice principles for sustainable donkey milk production’ were launched in December 2017. They include suggestions derived from scientific literature and/or reported by internationally recognised experts. The guidelines provide clear and helpful advice on good animal management practices for anyone interested in donkey milk production. They comprise the following chapters: ‘Responsibilities’, ‘Feed and water’, ‘Housing and Management’, ‘Donkey health care’, ‘Humane killing’, ‘Appropriate behaviour’, and ‘Milking procedures’. The guidelines, translated in different languages (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Greek and Chinese Mandarin) are freely available online. Highlights The guidelines “Dairy donkeys: good practice principles for sustainable donkey milk production” are freely available online in six languages The guidelines provide clear and helpful advice on good animal management practices for anyone interested in donkey milk production The guidelines include suggestions derived from scientific literature and/or reported by internationally recognised experts
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica; Vol 21, No 4 (2018); 138-141 ; 1336-9245
Received: 2018-05-06 | Accepted: 2018-05-14 | Available online: 2018-11-26https://doi.org/10.15414/afz.2018.21.04.138-141By modifying meals for hens it is possible to influence the content of selenium and lutein in eggs, which enables the production of eggs with an increased share of the desired functional ingredients. Such eggs on the market represent enriched or functional foods that are characterized by preventive action in order to preserve the human health. The results of our research show that the composition of meals affects the content of selenium and lutein in eggs. The use of Se-yeast in hens’ mixtures in the amount of 0.5 mg·kg of feed increases the selenium content in egg whites and yolks by 62.94% and 41.54% in comparison to eggs from hens fed with a conventional mixture. Addition of 400 mg·kg of lutein to a hens' mixture can enrich egg yolk with lutein by 86.93% with respect to eggs from hens fed with a conventional mixture (without the addition of lutein).By designing hens’ mixtures using selenium and lutein having antioxidant activity, it is possible to produce eggs with improved nutritional value and extended shelf life.Keywords: eggs, enrichment, lutein, seleniumReferencesAljamal, A.A., Purdum, S.E., Hanford, K.J. (2014) The effect of normal and excessive supplementation of selenomethionine and sodium selenite in laying hens. International Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 3 (3), 33-38.Chung, H.Y., Rasmussen, H.M., Johnson, E.J. (2004) Lutein bioavailability is higher from lutein-enriched eggs than from supplements and spinach in men. The Journal of Nutrition, 134 (8), 1887-1893. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/134.8.1887Fašiangová M., Bořilová G., Hulánková R. (2017) Effect of Dietary Se Supplementation on the Se Status and Physico-chemical Properties of Eggs – a Review. Czech Journal of Food Science, 35 (4), 275-284. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.17221/370/2016-CJFSFerencik, M, Ebringer, L. (2003) Modulatory effects of selenium and zinc on the immune system. Folia Microbiologica (Praha), 48 (3), 417-426. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02931378Gajčević, Z., Kralik, G., Has-Schon, E., Pavić, V. (2009) Effects of organic selenium supplemented to layer diet on table egg freshness and selenium content. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 8 (2), 189-199. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2009.189Gale, C.R., Hall, N.F., Phillips, D.I., Martyn, C.N. (2001) Plasma antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids and age-related cataract. Ophthalmology, 108 (11), 1992-1998. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0161-6420(01)00833-8Gao, S., Qin, T., Liu, Z., Caceres, M.A., Ronchi, C.F., Chen, C.Y., Yeum, K.J., Taylor, A., Blumberg, J.B., Liu, Y., Shang, F. (2011) Lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation reduces H2O2-induced oxidative damage in human lens epithelial cells. [Online] Molecular Vision,17, 3180-3190. Available at: http://www.molvis.org/molvis/v17/a343/ [Accessed 20 April 2018].Golzar Adabi, S.H., Kamali, M.A., Davoudi, J., Cooper, R.G., Hajbabaei, A. (2010) Quantification of lutein in egg following feeding hens with a lutein supplement and quantification of lutein in human plasma after consumption of lutein enriched eggs. [Online] Archiv für Geflügelkunde, 74(3), 158-163. Available at: https://www.european-poultry-science.com/Quantification-of-lutein-in-egg-following-feeding-hens-with-a-lutein-supplement-and-quantification-of-lutein-in-human-plasma-after-consumption-of-lutein-enriched-eggs,QUlEPTQyMTk2ODImTUlEPTE2MTAxNA.html [Accessed 24 April 2018].Grčević, M, Kralik, Z., Kralik, G., Radišić, Ž., Mahmutović, H. (2014) Increase of the lutein content in hens' eggs. In Popović, Zoran (ur.) Proceedings of the International Symposium on Animal Science. Beograd: University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture. 637-642. Available at: http://arhiva.nara.ac.rs/bitstream/handle/123456789/724/91%20Livestocksym%202014%20-%20Grcevic%20et%20al.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y [Accessed 20 April 2018].Grčević, M. (2015) Obogaćivanje konzumnih jaja luteinom . Doktorska disertacija. Osijek: Poljoprivredni fakultet u Osijeku. 121.Jing. C.L., Dong. X.F., Wang. Z.M., Liu. S., Tong. J.M. (2015) Comparative study of DL-selenomethionine vs sodium selenite and seleno-yeast on antioxidant activity and selenium status in laying hens. Poultry Science, 94 (5), 965-975. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pev045Kralik, G., Gajčević, Z., Suchy, P., Strakova, E., Hanžek, D. (2009) Effects of dietary selenium source and storage on internal quality of eggs. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 78 (2), 219-222. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.2754/avb200978020219Kralik, G., Kralik, Z., Grčević, M., Kralik, I., Gantner, V. (2018) Enrichment of table eggs with functional ingredients. Journal of Central European Agriculture, 19 (1), 72-82. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.5513/JCEA01/19.1.2025Kralik, Z., Grčević, M., Radišić, Ž., Kralik, I., Lončarić, Z., Škrtić, Z. (2016) Effect of selenium-fortified wheat in feed for laying hens on table eggs quality. [Online] Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 22 (2), 297-302. Available at: http://www.agrojournal.org/22/02-21.pdf [Accessed 22 April 2018].Kralik, Z., Lončarić, Z., Grčević, M., Radišić, Ž., Galović, D., Cimerman, E. (2017) Utjecaj korištenja biofortificiranog kukuruza u hrani za nesilice na kvalitetu jaja kokoši hrvatice. In Antunović, Zvonko (ur.) Zbornik radova 52. hrvatskog i 12. Međunarodnog simpozija agronoma. Vila, Sonja. Osijek: Poljoprivredni fakultet u Osijeku, 528-533. Available at: http://sa.agr.hr/pdf/2017/sa2017_proceedings.pdf [Accessed 20 April 2018].Kryukov, G.V., Castellano, S., Novoselov, S.V., Lobanov, A.V., Zehtab, O., Guigo, R. Gladyshev, V.N. (2003) Characterization of mammalian selenoproteomes. Science, 300 (5624), 1439-1443. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1083516Landrum, J.T., Bone, R.A. (2001) Lutein, zeaxanthin, and the macular pigment. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 385 (1), 28-40. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1006/abbi.2000.2171Leeson, S., Caston, L. (2004) Enrichment of eggs with lutein. Poultry Science, 83 (10), 1709-1712. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ps/83.10.1709Leeson, S., Caston, L., Namkung, H. (2007) Effect of dietary lutein and flax on performance, egg composition and liver status of laying hens. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 87 (3), 365-372. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4141/A06-043Pan, C., Huang, K., Zhao, Y., Qin, S., Chen, F., Hu, Q. (2007) Effect of selenium source and level in hen's diet on tissue selenium deposition and egg selenium concentrations. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55 (3), 1027-1032. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf062010aPaton, N.D., Cantor, A.H., Pescatore, A.J., Ford, M.J., Smith, C.A. (2002) The effect of dietary selenium source and level on the uptake of selenium by developing chick embryos. Poultry Science, 81 (10), 1548-1554. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ps/81.10.1548Skřivan, M. (2009) Zvýšení obsahu selenu ve vejcích: Metodika [Online.] Prague: Institute of Animal Science. Available at: https://anzdoc.com/vyzkumny-ustav-ivoine-vyroby-vvi-praha-uhinves-metodika-zvye.html [Accessed 23 April 2018].Surai, P.F. (2000) Organic selenium and the egg: Lessons from nature. [Online] Feed Compounder, 20, 16–18. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283153317_Organic_selenium_and_the_egg_Lessons_from_nature [Accessed 22 April 2018].
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica; Vol 21, No 1 (2018); 20-23 ; 1336-9245
Received: 2018-01-30 | Accepted: 2018-02-26 | Available online: 2018-03-31https://doi.org/10.15414/afz.2018.21.01.20-23Aim of this experiment was to determine the gross energy concentration of fresh, wilted and ensiled hybrid of Rumex patientia L. x Rumex tianschanicus A. Los. (Rumex OK 2). Samples were collected in autumn months of the year 2017. The plant of Rumex OK 2 consist during autumn months only from rosette of leaves. The height of leaves was in autumn months following, September 56.68±13.80 cm; October 59.29±11.93 cm and November 55.98±10.80 cm. Rumex OK 2 silage was made from wilted matter, with or without of addition of dried molasses. Gross energy was determined as the heat released after combustion of a sample (Leco AC 500) in MJ per kilogram of dry matter of the sample. By the autumn months the concentration of dry matter, as well as the concentration of gross energy increased, except Rumex OK 2 silage from November. The highest concentration of gross energy had wilted Rumex OK 2 from November (18.02 MJ.kg-1 of dry matter). There was no significant effect of addition of dried molasses to wilted Rumex OK 2 before ensiling on gross energy concentration in Rumex OK 2 silages (P>0.05). Gross energy concentration of all types of analysed samples had relative high value (16.98 to 18.02 MJ.kg-1 of dry matter). Fresh or ensiled Rumex OK 2 can be used as a part of feed ratio for ruminants or can be utilised in biogas station. However, due to the low content of dry mater in fresh or wilted material the production of silage can be in autumn months problematic.Keywords: Rumex OK 2, silage, gross energy, dry matterReferences BAZHAY-ZHEZHERUN, S. and RAKHMETOV, D. (2014) Nutritional value of shchavnat. In Food Industry, no. 16, pp. 15-19. Available from: http://dspace.nuft.edu.ua/jspui/bitstream/123456789/24166/1/2.pdf (in Ukrainian).BÍRO, D. et al. (2007) Nutritive value and digestibility characteristics of different maize silage hybrids. In Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 17-19.DERRICK, R.W. et al. (1993) Intake, by sheep, and digestibility of chickweed, dandelion, dock, ribwort and spurrey, compared with perennial ryegrass. In The Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 51-61. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600073585GÁLIK, B. et al. (2016) Nutritional characteristics of feeds. Nitra: Slovak University of agriculture in Nitra (in Slovak).HEJDUK, S. and DOLEŽAL, P. (2004) Nutritive value of broad-leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius L.) and its effect on the quality of grass silages. In Czech Journal of Animal Science, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 144-450. Available from: http://www.agriculturejournals.cz/publicFiles/53197.pdfHEJDUK, S. and DOLEŽAL, P. (2008) Effect of broad-leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius L.) on grass silage quality. 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Available from: http://www.slpk.sk/acta/docs/2010/afz03-10.pdfKOVÁČIKOVÁ, E. (1997) Food Tables – Fruit and Vegetables. Bratislava: Food Research Institute (in Slovak).MAGA, J. et al. (2008) Complex model of biomass utilisation for energy purpose. Nitra: Slovak University of agriculture in Nitra (in Slovak).MARTINKOVA, Z. et al. (2009) Weather and survival of broadleaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius L.) in an unmanaged grassland. In Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, vol. 116, no. 5, pp. 214-2017. Available from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/43229065PAJTÁŠ, M. et al. (2009) Nutrition and feeding of animals – terminologically educational dictionary. Nitra: Slovak University of agriculture in Nitra (in Slovak).PEPICH, Š. (2006) Ekonomical incidence of biomass utilisation in energetics of agricultural enterprise. In Agrobioenergia, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 9-10 (in Slovak). Available from: http://abe.sk/casopis/2006/ABE%201-2006.pdfPETŘÍKOVÁ, V. (2009) Rumex OK 2 – fodder sorrel. [Online]. Retrieved 2018-01-25 from: https://biom.cz/cz/odborne-clanky/rumex-ok-2-krmny-stovik (in Czech).PETŘÍKOVÁ, V. (2011) Energy use of Rumex. [Online]. Retrieved 2018-01-25 from: http://oze.tzb-info.cz/biomasa/7779-energeticke-uplatneni-krmneho-stoviku (in Czech).PETŘÍKOVÁ, V. (2012) Forage plant – Rumex OK 2. [Online]. Retrieved 2018-01-25 from: https://biom.cz/cz/odborne-clanky/krmna-plodina-rumex-ok-2 (in Czech).PETRIKOVIČ, P. et al. (2000) Nutritional value of feeds, I. part. Nitra: Research Institute for Animal Production Nitra (in Slovak).RAKHMETOV, D.B. and RAKHMETOVA, S.O. (2006) Varietal diversification of shchavnat (Rumex patientia L. × R. tianschаnicus Losinsk) and directions of its use. In Plant Introduction, no. 1, рр. 11-16. Available from: http://www.nbg.kiev.ua/upload/introd/Intr-N1-06.pdf (in Ukrainian).RAKHMETOV, D.B. and RAKHMETOVA, S.O. (2011) Shchavnat: both fruit, and feed and biofuels. In Cereal, no. 3, pp. 8-10. Available from: http://www.zerno-ua.com/journals/2011/mart-2011-god/shchavnat-i-ovoshch-ikorm-i-fitotoplivo (in Russian).SKLÁDANKA, J. et al. (2014) Forage production. Brno: Mendel University in Brno (in Czech).USŤAK, S. (2007) Cultivation and use of fodder sorrel in condition of Czech Republic. Prague: Crop Research Institute. Available from: http://www.vurv.cz/files/Publications/ISBN978-80-87011-26-3.pdf (in Czech).WALLSTEN, J. (2003) In vivo and in vitro digestibility of lichens and silage for reindeer. Uppsala: Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics. Available from: https://www.slu.se/globalassets/ew/org/inst/huv/bilder-frangamla-webben/renskotsel/240_johanna_wallsten.pdf
Late detection of emergency diseases causes significant economic losses for pig producers and governments. As the first signs of animal infection are usually fever and reduced motion that lead to reduced consumption of water and feed, we developed a novel smart system to monitor body temperature and motion in real time, facilitating the early detection of infectious diseases. In this study, carried out within the framework of the European Union research project Rapidia Field, we tested the smart system on 10 pigs experimentally infected with two doses of an attenuated strain of African swine fever. Biosensors and an accelerometer embedded in an eartag captured data before and after infection, and video cameras were used to monitor the animals 24 h per day. The results showed that in 8 of 9 cases, the monitoring system detected infection onset as an increase in body temperature and decrease in movement before or simultaneously with fever detection based on rectal temperature measurement, observation of clinical signs, the decrease in water consumption or positive qPCR detection of virus. In addition, this decrease in movement was reliably detected using automatic analysis of video images therefore providing an inexpensive alternative to direct motion measurement. The system can be set up to alert staff when high fever, reduced motion or both are detected in one or more animals. This system may be useful for monitoring sentinel herds in real time, considerably reducing the financial and logistical costs of periodic sampling and increasing the chances of early detection of infection. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
SWINE disease diagnosis - ONLINE monitoring systems - ACCELEROMETERS - POLYMERASE chain reaction - TEMPERATURE measurements
There are indications that pelagic cnidarians and ctenophores (‘jellyfish’) have increased in abundance throughout the world, or that outbreaks are more frequent, although much uncertainty surrounds the issue, due to the scarcity of reliable baseline data. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed for the individual increases or outbreaks that are better documented, but direct experimental or manipulative studies at the ecosystem scale cannot be used for testing them. Thus, ecological modeling provides the best alternative to understand the role of jellyfish in large fisheries-based ecosystems; indeed, it is an approach consistent with new ecosystem-based fisheries management practices. Here, we provide an overview of online databases available to ecosystem modelers and discuss general aspects and shortcomings of the coverage of jellyfish in these databases. We then provide a summary of how jellyfish have been treated and parameterized by existing ecosystem models (specifically focusing on ‘Ecopath with Ecosim’ as a standard modeling toolset). Despite overall weaknesses in the parameterization of jellyfish in these models, interesting patterns emerge that suggest some systems, especially smaller and more structured ones, may be particularly vulnerable to long-term jellyfish biomass increase. Since jellyfish also feed on the eggs and larvae of commercially important food fish, outbreaks of jellyfish may ultimately imply a reduction in the fish biomass available to fisheries. On the other hand, jellyfish, which have been traditionally fished for human consumption in East and Southeast Asia, are now seen as a potential resource in other parts of the world, where pilot fisheries have emerged. It is also argued here that reduced predation on the benthic and pelagic stages of jellyfish, both a result of fishing, may be a strong contributing factor as well. For marine biologists specializing on jellyfish, this means that their research might become more applied. This implies that they would benefit from adopting some concepts and methods from fisheries biology and ecosystem modeling, and thus from using (and contributing to) online databases, such as SeaLifeBase and FishBase, developed to support such research. This would remedy the situation, documented here, wherein jellyfish are either infrequently included in food web models, typically constructed using the Ecopath with Ecosim software, or included as a single functional group with the characteristic of an ‘average’ jellyfish. Thus, jellyfish specialists could readily improve the jellyfish-related components of such models, and we show how they could do this. Also, it is suggested that when such improvement is performed, the resulting models can lead to non-intuitive inferences and hence interesting hypotheses on the roles of jellyfish in ecosystems. This is illustrated here through (a) an investigation of whether jellyfish are keystone species and (b) the identification of conditions under which (simulated) jellyfish outbreaks may occur. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Simple Summary: This study explores the characteristics of animal-visitor Interactions (AVIs) (interactions between people and captive wild animals) in zoos and aquaria across the globe. We reviewed information provided on public websites of institutions that are either direct members of the World Association for Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA) or belong to regional and national associations that have WAZA membership. The opportunity for visitors to interact with wild animals was promoted on the majority of the facilities' websites. Petting captive wild animals was the most common AVI activity advertised (43%) of facilities, and interaction with mammals was the most advertised taxonomic class (53%). Some activities involving direct contact with wildlife were promoted more commonly than expected (for example, hand feed and ride wild animals, and walk with or swim through wild animal enclosures). Some of the advertised AVIs have the potential to impact animal welfare; in light of this, we provide recommendations to balance and manage captive wild animal welfare in AVIs with other primary interconnected goals. We provide an initial insight into the occurrence and characteristics of animal-visitor interactions (AVIs) involving captive wild animals within zoos and aquaria. Using information provided online via official public websites of modern zoos and aquaria, we found that AVIs were provided by the majority of facilities. Our study revealed that a variety of AVI types were being offered. Globally, petting captive wild animals was the most prevalent AVI type advertised (n = 1241 observations, 43% (534) of facilities) and Mammalia was the most advertised taxonomic class (n = 5142; 53% (2739)). We found certain AVI types that were more commonly offered than predicted. These were opportunities to: (1) Hand feed captive wild animals in Asia, North America and Oceania; (2) ride wild animals in Europe and North America; (3) walk with or swim through wild animal enclosures in Asia; and (4) walk with wild animals in Asia and Europe. Given the global prevalence of AVIs in modern zoos and aquaria, and an apparent lack of animal welfare focused research, we provide recommendations to help effectively balance and manage captive wild animal welfare with other primary interconnected goals. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
ASIA - NORTH America - EUROPE - ANIMAL welfare - CAPTIVE wild animals - ANIMALS - ZOOS - BIOLUMINESCENCE
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica; Vol 21, No 3 (2018); 129-134 ; 1336-9245
Article Details: Received: 2018-07-31 | Accepted: 2018-10-18 | Available online: 2018-09-31https://doi.org/10.15414/afz.2018.21.03.129-134The aim of this study was to determine the nutritive value and fermentation parameters of silage made from hybrid Rumex patientia L. x Rumex tianschanicus A.Los (Rumex OK 2). Silages were made in months September, October and November of the year 2017 and next in April and May of the year 2018. In each month two variants were analysed, one without additives and second with an addition of 1% of dried molasses to wilted Rumex OK 2 plants. After 5 weeks fermentation in hermetic sealed plastic bags at temperature 20°C the concentration of nutrients and parameters of fermentation were analysed in average samples. The content of dry matter in all silages were low and ranged from 7.1 to 18.8%. Content of crude protein was highest in autumn months, when was from 289 to 339 g.kg-1 DM, which is much more compared to alfalfa silages. Crude fiber was in spring months from 295 to 422 g.kg-1 DM and in autumn months from 126 to 166 g.kg-1 DM. Development of fiber components was similar to development of crude fiber content. The concentration of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber in Rumex OK 2 silages from autumn months meet the criteria for first class legume silage. Only silages from October and November had the content of lactic acid more than 10 g.kg-1 of original matter. Addition of dried molasses increased (P<0.05) concentration of lactic acid and decreased (P>0.05) concentration of acetic acid in silages from September, October, April and May. All Rumex OK 2 silages did not contain butyric acid. Silage pH value appertain to its dry matter concentration was relative high, which make impossible the good overall assessment. However, according to concentration of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and proteolysis can be Rumex OK 2 silages from autumn months considered as a nutritional valuable feed. On the other hand Rumex OK 2 silage from September contains high concentration of oxalic acid, which can be potentially hazardous for animals.ReferencesBAZHAY-ZHEZHERUN, S. and RAKHMETOV, D. (2014) Nutritional value of shchavnat. Food Industry, no. 16, pp. 15–19 (in Ukrainian).BÍRO, D. et al. (2014) Conservation and adjustment of feeds. 1st ed. Nitra: SUA (in Slovak).BOCKHOLT, R. and KANNEWURF, B. (2001) Rumex obtusifolius in peatbog at Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (widening, forage quality, ensilability, force out by extensiveness). In: 45. Jahrestagung AGF, 23.–25. 8. 2001, Gumpenstein, pp. 49–51 (in German).DERRICK, R.W. et al. (1993) Intake, by sheep, and digestibility of chickweed, dandelion, dock, ribwort and spurrey, compared with perennial ryegrass. The Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 51–61. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/ S0021859600073585HATCHER, P.E. et al. (1997) The effect of nitrogen fertilisation and rust fungus infection, singly and combined, on the leaf chemical composition of Rumex obtusifolius. Functional Ecology, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 545–553. doi: https://doi. org/10.1046/j.1365-2435.1997.00123.xHEJDUK, S. and DOLEŽAL, P. (2004) Nutritive value of broadleaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius L.) and its effect on the quality of grass silages. Czech Journal of Animal Science, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 144–450.HEJDUK, S. and DOLEŽAL, P. (2008) Effect of broad-leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius L.) on grass silage quality. Acta universitatis agriculturae et silviculturae mendelianea brunensis, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 75–80. doi: https://doi.org/10.11118/ actaun200856050075HRIC, P. et al. (2018) The changes of the assimilation pigments content of turf Festuca spp. leaves after application of different nutrition forms. Acta fytotechnica et zootechnica, vol 21, no. 1, pp. 6–10. doi: https://doi.org/10.15414/afz.2018.21.01.06-10JURÁČEK, M. et al. (2010) Silage energy value for bioenergy utilization. Acta fytotechnica et zootechnica, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 76–78 (in Slovak).JURÁČEK, M. et al. (2011) Laboratory protocols. In GÁLIK et al. (2011) Biotechnology and animal food quality – Part II. Animal food quality. Nitra: Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, pp.122–133.JURÁČEK, M. et al. (2016) The quality of farm-scale alfalfa silages. Acta fytotechnica et zootechnica, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 54–58. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15414/afz.2016.19.02.54-58KALAČ, P. and MÍKA, V. (1997) Natural harmful substances in plant feeds. Praha: ÚZPI (in Czech).KLIMEŠ, L. (1993) Morphometry of leaves of Rumex crispus, R. obtusifolius and its hybrid (R. × pratensis). Preslia, vol. 65, pp. 219–224.KOVÁR, P. et al. (2017) The influence of various dose of nitrogen on botanical composition of turfs on the basis of drought-tolerant fescues cultivated under conditions without irrigation. Journal of Central European Agriculture, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 494–514. doi: https://doi.org/10.5513/JCEA01/18.2.1922MITRÍK, T. (2014) Evaluation system of fermentation parameters of legume and grass silages. In BÍRO, D. et al. (2014) Conservation and adjustment of feeds, 1st ed. Nitra: Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra (in Slovak).RAKHMETOV, D. (2018) Non-traditional plant species for bioenergetics. Nitra: Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra. doi: https://doi.org/10.15414/2018.fe-9788055218557 (in Russian).REGULATION of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Slovak republic no. 2145/2004-100 about sampling of feeds, laboratory testing and evaluation of feeds (in Slovak).SCEHOVIC, J. (2002) Main results of scientific projects researching the feed quality of permanent grasslands and meadows. Ekológia trávneho porastu VI. Banská Bystrica: VÚTPHP, pp. 326–335.ŠKULTÉTY, M. (2014) Quality evaluation of silages. In BÍRO, D. et al. (2014) Conservation and adjustment of feeds, 1st ed. Nitra: Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra (in Slovak).TŮMOVÁ, E. et al. (2010) Natural anti-nutritional and toxic substances in feeds for animals. In OPLETAL, L. and SKŘIVANOVÁ, E. eds. (2010) Natural substances and its biological activity. Praha: Charles University, pp. 417–465.USŤAK, S. (2007) Cultivation and use of fodder sorrel in condition of Czech Republic. Prague: Crop Research Institute (in Czech).WEISSBACH, F. (1998) Research of different herbs from extensive meadows of influence of fermentation process by the silage preparation. FAL agricultural research, Special issue, p. 185 (in German).
The most significant knowledge gaps in the prevention and control of African swine fever (ASF) were identified by the EU Veterinary services and other stakeholders involved in pig production and wild boar management through an online survey. The respondents were asked to identify the major research needs in order to improve short‐term ASF risk management. Four major gaps were identified: 'wild boar', 'African swine fever virus (ASFV) survival and transmission', 'biosecurity' and 'surveillance'. In particular, the respondents stressed the need for better knowledge on wild boar management and surveillance, and improved knowledge on the possible mechanism for spread and persistence of ASF in wild boar populations. They indicated the need for research on ASFV survival and transmission from the environment, different products such as feed and feed materials, and potential arthropod vector transmission. In addition, several research topics on biosecurity were identified as significant knowledge gaps and the need to identify risk factors for ASFV entry into domestic pig holdings, to develop protocols to implement specific and appropriate biosecurity measures, and to improve the knowledge about the domestic pig–wild boar interface. Potential sources of ASFV introduction into unaffected countries need to be better understood by an in‐depth analysis of the possible pathways of introduction of ASFV with the focus on food, feed, transport of live wild boars and human movements. Finally, research on communication methods to increase awareness among all players involved in the epidemiology of ASF (including truck drivers, hunters and tourists) and to increase compliance with existing control measures was also a topic mentioned by all stakeholders. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica; Vol 21, No 4 (2018); 183-185 ; 1336-9245
Received: 2018-06-06 | Accepted: 2018-06-08 | Available online: 2018-11-26https://doi.org/10.15414/afz.2018.21.04.183-185The objective of this study was to compare the pure chicken breeds Oravka (OR; n = 50), Amrock (AM; n = 50) and their cross Oravka×Amrock (ORAM; n = 50) and Amrock×Oravka (AMOR; n = 50) for productive and carcass parameters. The birds were maintained on a deep litter system for a period of 20 weeks. We recorded that crossbred ORAM and AMOR chickens performed better than the average of parental genotypes for body weight and body weight gain in brooding and growing period. The poor (P<0.05) feed conversion was observed in AM chickens and better feed conversion was recorded in OR and both crossbred chickens. The crossbred chickens had lowest (P<0.05) mortality than pure bred AM chickens. The carcass parts, giblets and abdominal fat percentages had non-significant (P>0.05) difference among pure and crossbred chickens. The highest carcass yield was observed in ORAM (62.53%) followed by AMOR (62.48%), AM (62.41%) and OR (62.39%) chickens.Keywords: body conformation, body weight, chicken, crossbreding, feed utilityReferencesAdebambo, A.O. (2011) Combining abilities among four breeds of chicken for feed efficiency variation: a preliminary assessment for chicken improvement in Nigeria. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 43, 1465-1466. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-011-9844-yAlmasi, A., Suto, Z., Budai, Z., Donko, T., Milisits, G., Horn, P. (2012) Effect of age, sex and strain on growth, body composition and carcass characteristics of dual purpose type chicken. World´s Poultry Science Journal, Supplement 1, 47-50.Besbes, B. (2009) Genotype evaluation and breeding of poultry for performance under sub-optimal village conditions. World´s Poultry Science Journal, 65, 260-271. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.10.17/50043933909000221Brickett, K.E., Dahiya, J.P., Classen, H.L., Gomis, S. (2007) Influence of dietary nutrient density, feed form, and lighting on growth and meat yield of broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 86, 2172-2181.Duncan, D.B. (1955). The Multiple Range and Multiple F-test. Biometrics, 11, 1-42. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3001478Havenstein, G.B., Ferket, P.R., Qureshi, M.A. (2003) Carcass composition and yield of 1957 versus 2001 broilers when fed representative 1957 and 2001 broiler diets. Poultry Science, 82, 1509-1518.Hoffmann, I. (2005) Research and investment in poultry genetic resources-challengs and options for sustainable use. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 61, 57-69. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1079/WPS200449Iraqi, M.M., Afifi, E.A., Abdel-Ghany, A.M., Afram, M. (2005) Diallel crossing analysis for livability data involving two standard and two native Egyptian chicken breeds. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 17 (7).Janocha, A., Osek, M., Klocek, B., Wasilowska, Z., Turyk, Z. (2003) Quality evaluation of broiler chickens of various genetic groups. Appl. Sci. Rep. Anim. Prod. Rev., 68, 141-148.JASP 0.8.6 software (2018).Khawaja, T., Khan, S. H., Mukhtar, N., Parveen, A. (2012) Comparative study of growth performance, meat quality and haematological parameters of Fayoumi, Rhode Island Red and their reciprocal crossbred chickens. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 11, e39. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2012.e39Khawaja, T., Khan, S. H., Parveen, A., Iqbal, J. (2016) Growth performance, meat composition and haematological parameters of first generation of newly evolved hybridized pure chicken and their crossbred parents. Veterinarski Arhiv, 86 (1), 135-148.Nawar, M.E., Aly, O.M., Abd El-Hamid, A.E. (2004) The effect of crossing on some economic traits in chickens. Egyptian Poultry Science Journal, 24, 163-176.Sengül, T., Cetin, M., Konca, Y., Yildiz, A. (2003) Comparison of growth performance and carcass yield of some commercial broilers. Journal of Poultry Research, 3 (1), 12-16.Sharaf, M.M., Mandour, M.A., Taha, A.E. (2006) Effect of diallel crossing on same growth performance, carcass traits and immune response against new castle disease virus vaccine of Japanese quails. Egyptian Poultry Science, 3, 1451-1470.
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica; Vol 21, No 4 (2018); 197-200 ; 1336-9245
Article Details: Received: 2018-07-31 | Accepted: 2018-10-18 | Available online: 2018-10-31 https://doi.org/10.15414/afz.2018.21.04.197-200The aim of this study was to determine the nutritive value of hybrid Rumex patientia L. x Rumex tianschanicus A.Los (Rumex OK 2). Rumex OK 2 can be considered as a technical or energetic plant for renewable production of biomass or as a feed as source of nutrients for animals. In this study two harvestings were planned, firs cut was realised in June (growth from March to June) and second cut was realised in November (growth from July to November). Samples of Rumex OK 2 plants were collected in the 20th day of the month in March to June and in September to November. Concentration of nutrients were detected according to Regulation no. 2145/2004-100. Fresh Rumex OK 2 samples from March 7.42%, April 8.71% and September 4.89% had very low concentration of dry matter (DM). On the other hand samples from March, April, September and October had high concentration of crude protein in range from 31.42 to 24.54% of DM. From start of growth in spring to time of firs cut in June increased both concentration of dry matter from 7.42 to 56.62% and concentration of crude fibre from 14.86 to 47.38% of DM. Concentration of fat in Rumex OK 2 is low and similar to that of maize plant or alfalfa, whereas concentration of nitrogen free extract in Rumex OK 2 plant is similar only to alfalfa. Results of this article bring compact view over nutritional characteristic of Rumex OK 2, which can be according to gained results about nutritional value used as a source of nutrients in animal nutrition, or as a source of renewable biomass for bioenergy production.ReferencesBOCKHOLT, R. and KANNEWURF, B. (2001) Rumex obtusifolius in peatbog at Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (widening, forage quality, ensilability, force out by extensiveness). In 45. Jahrestagung AGF, 23.–25. 8. 2001, Gumpenstein, pp. 49–51. (in German).DERRICK, R.W. et al. (1993) Intake, by sheep, and digestibility of chickweed, dandelion, dock, ribwort and spurrey, compared with perennial ryegrass. The Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 51–61. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600073585GÁLIK, B. et al. (2016) Nutritional characteristics of feeds. Nitra: Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra (in Slovak).HEJDUK, S. and DOLEŽAL, P. (2004) Nutritive value of broadleaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius L.) and its effect on the quality of grass silages. Czech Journal of Animal Science, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 144–450. Available from: http://www.agriculturejournals.cz/publicFiles/53197.pdfHRIC, P. et al. (2018) The changes of the assimilation pigments content of turf Festuca spp. leaves after application of different nutrition forms. Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 6–10. Doi: https://doi.org/10.15414/afz.2018.21.01.06-10JURÁČEK, M. et al. (2012) Nutritional value and ensilability if maize hybrids. Nitra: Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra (in Slovak).JURÁČEK, M. et al. (2011) Laboratory protocols. In GÁLIK et al. (2011) Biotechnology and animal food quality – Part II. Animal food quality. Nitra: Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, pp. 122–133.KOVÁR, P. et al. (2017) The influence of various dose of nitrogen on botanical composition of turfs on the basis of drought-tolerant fescues cultivated under conditions without irrigation. In Journal of Central European Agriculture, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 494–514. Doi: https://doi.org//10.5513/JCEA01/18.2.1922PETŘÍKOVÁ, V. (2012) Forage plant – Rumex OK 2. [Online]. Retrieved 2018-07-31 from: https://biom.cz/cz/odborneclanky/krmna-plodina-rumex-ok-2 (in Czech).PETRIKOVIČ, P. et al. (2000) Nutritional value of feeds. Nitra: VÚŽV (in Slovak).RAKHMETOV, D. (2018) Non-traditional plant species for bioenergetics. Nitra: Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, 103 p. Doi: https://doi.org/10.15414/2018.fe-9788055218557 (in Russian).REGULATION of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Slovak republic no. 2145/2004-100 about sampling of feeds, laboratory testing and evaluation of feeds.ROLINEC, M. et al. (2018a) Energy content of hybrid Rumex patientia L. × Rumex tianschanicus A.Los. (Rumex OK 2) samples from autumn months. Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 20–23. Doi: https://doi.org/10.15414/afz.2018.21.01.20-23ROLINEC, M. et al. (2018b) Energy content of hybrid Rumex patientia L. × Rumex tianschanicus A.Los (Rumex OK 2) samples from spring months and June. Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 60–62. Doi: https://doi.org/10.15414/afz.2018.21.02.60-62ŠIMKO, M. et al. (2010) Saccharides in ruminants nutrition. Nitra: Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra (in Slovak)TRINÁCTÝ, J. (2013) Evaluation of feeds for dairy cows. Pohořelice: AgroDigest (in Czech).USŤAK, S. (2007) Cultivation and use of fodder sorrel in condition of Czech Republic. Prague: Crop Research Institute. Available from: http://www.vurv.cz/files/Publications/ISBN978- 80-87011-26-3.pdf (in Czech).
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica; Vol 21, No 4 (2018); 173-178 ; 1336-9245
Received: 2018-05-29 | Accepted: 2018-05-29 | Available online: 2018-11-26https://doi.org/10.15414/afz.2018.21.04.173-178The aim of this experiment was to determine the influence of humic substances, and combination humic substances and selected phytobiotics on production and carcass parameters of broiler chickens. In experiment from total 200 one-day-old ROSS 308 chickens were randomized into four groups (n = 50). The control group was fed with basal diet (BD) without any additives. Group of chickens marked as treatment 1 (T1) was fed a BD containing 2% of humic acid, the group marked as treatment 2 (T2) was fed a BD containing 78% of humic acids, 18% of garlic powder (Allium sativum L.), 1% of milled dried leaves of wormwood (Artemisia absinthium), 1% of milled dried leaves of thyme (Thymus vulgaris), 1% of milled dried leaves of oregano (Origanum vulgare) and 1% of milled dried leaves of bogbean (Menyanthes trifoliata), together 2 kg /100kg complete feed mixture (BD). In the group marked as treatment T3 were chicken fed with BD containing industrially produced coccidiostats. Experiment lasted 42 days. At the end of the experiment was average body weight (values in the order of the groups: 1808.03 ±212.39; 1981.75 ±203.32; 1895.59 ±178.75 and 1955.31 ±237.16 g ±SD) significantly higher (P<0.05) in all treatment in compare to control group. In T2 was thigh part (29.27 ±1.50; 29.07 ±3.35; 30.45 ±2.15 and 29.49 ±2.34 mean ±SD) significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to control group. Carcass weight (values in the order of the groups: 1357.18 ±95.8; 1486.38 ±156.7; 1369.69 ±118.0 and 1440.68 ±132.1 g ±SD) and carcass yield (74.35 ±1.33; 76.10 ±1.97; 74.03 ±1.35 and 73.45 ±1.82 mean ±SD) were the highest in treatment T1 with humic acid addition (P>0.05).Keywords: Allium sativum L., Artemisa absinthium, broiler chicken, carcass parameters, humic acid, Menyanthes trifoliata, Origanum vulgare, performance parameters, Thymus vulgarisReferencesAlipour, F., Hassanabadi, A., Golian, A., Nassiri-Moghaddam, H. (2015) Effect of plant extracts derived from thyme on male broiler performance. Poutry Science, 94 (11), 2630-2634. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pev220Bacler-Żbikowska, B. (2012) Zasoby gatunkowe cennych roślin leczniczych powiatu włoszczowskiego. Część 3 – bobrek trójlistkowy Menyanthes trifoliata L. Annales Academiae Medicae Silesiensis, 66 (6), 7-12.Bertella, A, Benlahcen, K, Abouamama, S., Pinto, D.C.G.A., Maamar, K., Kihal, M., Silva, A.M.S. (2018) Artemisia herba-alba Asso. essential oil antibacterial activity and acute toxicity. Industrial Crops and Products, 116, 137-143. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.02.064Ceylan, N., Çiftçi, İ., İlhan, Z. (2003) The effects of some alternative feed additives for antibiotic growth promoters on the performance and gut microflora of broiler chicks. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 27 (3), 727-733.Diaz-Sanchez, S., D’Souza, D., Biswas, D., Hanning, I. (2015) Botanical alternatives to antibiotics for use in organic poultry production. Poultry Science, 94 (6), 1419-1430. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pev014Giannenas, I., Bonos, E., Christaki, E., Florou-Paneri, P. (2018) Oregano: A Feed Additive with Functional Properties. In: Therapeutic Foods, A volume in Handbook of Food Bioengineering, 179–208.Hafeez, A., Manner, K., Schieder, C., Zentek, J. (2016) Effect of supplementation of phytogenic feed additives (powdered vs.encapsulated) on performance and nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 95 (3), 622-629. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pev368Haselmeyer, A., Zentek, J., Chizzola, R. (2014) Effects of thyme as a feed additive in broiler chickens on thymol in gut contents, blood plasma, liver and muscle. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 95 (3), 504508. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6758 Hassan, H.M.A., M.A. Mohamed, A.W. Youssef, E.R. Hassan, (2010) Effect of using organic acids to substitute antibiotic growth promoters on performance and intestinal microflora of broilers. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 23, (10) 1348-1353. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.3382/japr.2013-00901Issa, K. M., Omar, J. M. A. (2012) Effect of garlic powder on performance and lipid profile of broilers. Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 2 (2), 62-68. 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Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica; Vol 20, No 4 (2017); 95-98 ; 1336-9245
Received: 2016-12-13 | Accepted: 2016-12-18 | Available online: 2017-12-31http://dx.doi.org/10.15414/afz.2017.20.04.95-98The aim of this research was to determine the fatty acid content in maize silages of different hybrids. Grain hybrid with FAO number 420 and silage hybrid with stay-green maturation with FAO number 450 were evaluated. Maize hybrids were grown under the same agro-ecological conditions, and harvested on growing degree days 1277 (FAO 420) and 1297 (FAO 450). Whole-plant maize was chopped to 10 mm by harvester with kernel processor and immediately ensiled in plastic barrels (volume 50 dm3). Maize matter was ensiled without silage additives. For fatty acids analyses samples of maize silages were taken after 8 week of ensiling. Content of fatty acids was quantified by gas chromatography. Examined maize of both hybrids had the highest linoleic acid content, followed by oleic acid and third highest content of palmitic acid. The results confirmed differences in fatty acid content in maize silages of different hybrids. In silages of grain hybrid was detected significantly higher content of palmitic acid and cis-11-eicosenoic acid and significantly lower content of oleic acid in compared with silage of silage hybrid. This ultimately resulted in a higher polyunsaturated fatty acids content (P < 0.05) in maize silage from grain hybrid and lower monounsaturated fatty acids content (P < 0.05) in maize silage from stay green hybrid. Keywords: fatty acid, maize, hybrid, silageReferences Alezones, J. et al. (2010) Caracterización del perfil de ácidos grasos en granos de híbridosde maíz blanco cultivados en Venezuela. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 397–404.Alves, S.P. et al. (2011) Effect of ensiling and silage additives on fatty acid composition of ryegrass and corn experimental silages. 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(2014) Effect of corn silage and quantitative feed restriction on growth performance, body measurements, and carcass tissue composition in White Kołuda W31 geese. Poultry Science, vol. 93, no. 8, pp.1993–1999. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps.2013-03833Loučka, R. and Tyrolová, Y. (2013) Good practice for maize silaging. Praha: Institute of Animal Science.Mir, P.S. (2004) Fats in Corn Silage. Advanced Silage Corn Management 2004. [Online] Available from: http://www.farmwest.com/chapter-8-quality-of-corn-silage [Accessed: 2017- 10-30].Mojica-Rodríguez, J.E. et al. (2017) Effect of stage of maturity on fatty acid profile in tropical grasses. Corpoica Ciencia Tecnología Agropecuaria, vol. 18, no.2, pp. 217–232. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.21930/rcta.vol18_num2_art:623Nazir, N.A. et al. (2011) Changes in fatty acid content and composition in silage maize during grain filling. 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Journal of Animal Science. April 2013, Vol. 91 Issue 4, p1582, 12 p.
Understanding the cellular basis of feed efficiency (FE) is instrumental to helping poultry and livestock industries continue to provide high-quality protein for an increasingly crowded world. To understand relationships of FE and gene expression, global RNA transcription was investigated in breast muscle obtained from a male broiler line fed the same diet and individually phenotyped for FE. In these studies, RNA samples obtained from broilers that exhibited either high FE (0.65 [+ or -] 0.01) or low FE (0.46 [+ or -] 0.01) were analyzed with an Agilent 44K chicken oligoarray. A 1.3-fold cutoff in expression (30% difference between groups) resulted in 782 genes that were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) in muscle between the high- and low-FE phenotypes. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, an online software program, was used to identify genes, gene networks, and pathways associated with the phenotypic expression of FE. The results indicate that the high-FE phenotype exhibited increased expression of genes associated with 1) signal transduction pathways, 2) anabolic activities, and 3) energy-sensing and energy coordination activities, all of which would likely be favorable to cell growth and development. In contrast, the low-FE broiler phenotype exhibited upregulation of genes 1) associated with actin-myosin filaments, cytoskeletal architecture, and muscle fibers and 2) stress-related or stress-responsive genes. Because the low-FE broiler phenotype exhibits greater oxidative stress, it would appear that the low-FE phenotype is the product of inherent gene expression that is modulated by oxidative stress. The results of these studies begin to provide a comprehensive picture of gene expression in muscle, a major organ of energy demand in an animal, associated with phenotypic expression of FE. Keywords: feed efficiency, global gene expression, mitochondria, muscle
Gene expression -- Research - Mitochondria -- Research - Mitochondria -- Genetic aspects - Poultry -- Food and nutrition - Poultry -- Research
Issues in Information Systems; 2019, Vol. 20 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p
The automatic human-machine interaction is an important area on which the world research community is presently focusing. This has taken a significant space in developing newer schemes for efficient cyber physical systems. Face recognition on real time scale is an important component of this domain. In the present paper, a fast single layer feed-forward neural network known as Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine (OS-ELM) is exploited as a classifier for face recognition problem. In the beginning, the Viola Jones algorithm is employed to detect and extract the faces from the datasets. These faces are subjected to Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) feature detection to extract relevant image features which will form the classifier dataset. Two standard datasets - AT&T and YALE are used in this work. The OS-ELM based classifier is novel and successful to carry out a very high degree of classification after training and testing in the millisecond time span. Thus, it is found to be compatible with real time events such as face recognition. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]