The infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a major health threat to the world’s poultry industry despite intensive controls including proper biosafety practices and vaccination. IBDV (Avibirnavirus, Birnaviridae) is a non-enveloped virus with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome. The virus is traditionally classified into classic, variant and very virulent strains, each with different epidemiological relevance and clinical implications. Recently, a novel worldwide spread genetic lineage was described and denoted as distinct (d) IBDV. Here, we report the development and validation of a reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay for the specific detection of dIBDVs in the global poultry industry. The assay employs a TaqMan-MGB probe that hybridizes with a unique molecular signature of dIBDV. The assay successfully detected all the assessed strains belonging to the dIBDV genetic lineage, showing high specificity and absence of cross-reactivity with non-dIBDVs, IBDV-negative samples and other common avian viruses. Using serial dilutions ofin vitro-transcribed RNA we obtained acceptable PCR efficiencies and determination coefficients, and relatively small intra- and inter-assay variability. The assay demonstrated a wide dynamic range between 103and 108RNA copies/reaction. This rapid, specific and quantitative assay is expected to improve IBDV surveillance and control worldwide and to increase our understanding of the molecular epidemiology of this economically detrimental poultry pathogen. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
International Journal of One Health. Annual, 2017, Vol. 3, p28, 8 p.
Introduction For the past five decades, production in poultry industry has documented greater changes than in any other world's livestock subsector in agricultural production. Promising trends in livestock production indicate [...] Aim: Newcastle disease (ND) is an important viral disease for poultry caused by avian paramyxovirus which can be identified by its nature of agglutination activity with red blood cell (RBC) of different species. The study was aimed to characterize the hemagglutinating (HA) activity of ND virus (NDV) at three different temperatures using RBC of five avian species, six mammalian species, and eight different human blood groups. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from January to December 2014 at Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University. Five avian and six different mammalian species were selected for the study. In each species, two blood samples were collected aseptically. Eight different blood groups (A+, A-, B+, B-, AB+, AB-, O+, and O-) were studied in human. HA test was performed using two virus strains ND lasota and field isolate of very virulent NDV (VVNDV) with mentioned species of RBC at chilling (4[degrees]C), incubating (37[degrees]C), and room temperature (24[degrees]C). Results: Avian RBC requires less time for agglutination than mammalian RBC. Incubation temperature (37[degrees]C) requires lowest time and chilling temperature requires highest time for agglutination of RBC. Duck RBC requires lowest time (17.81 min) while chicken RBC needs highest (57.5 min) time for HA at incubation temperature and at chilling temperature, respectively, against ND lasota virus and with field strain. Goat RBC requires significantly higher time for HA (184.68 min) at chilling temperature than other mammalian species. Human RBC requires almost similar time but O+ and O- blood group do not show any HA activity. Significant variation (p<0.05) found in quail RBC at incubation temperature. In mammalian species, a significant difference (p<0.05) has been observed in goat and horse RBC at chilling; horse and dog RBC at incubation; goat, horse, buffalo, and dog RBC at room temperature. In human, significant variation (p<0.05) has been found in A+, A- and B- blood group in chilling, in B+ blood group at incubation and A+, B+, B-, AB- blood group at room temperature against two virus strains. Conclusion: ND is considered as an economically significant disease which is highly contagious in nature infecting many avian species. The threat of ND outbreak to poultry industry necessitates effective control measures to reduce the burden in commercial and backyard farming in Bangladesh. Keywords: chilling temperature, hemagglutination, incubation temperature, Newcastle disease virus, Newcastle disease virus lasota strain, very virulent Newcastle disease virus strain
Newcastle disease -- Research - Poultry industry -- Research - Bangladesh
The World'sPoultry Science Association was originally formed as the International Association of Poultry Instructors and Investigators in 1912. Its objectives were to foster the development of the poultry industry, and the exchange of information related to poultry science and technology. From small beginnings it has evolved into a strong international organisation with 7700 members in more than 80 countries. The association publishes the World'sPoultry Science Journal and promotes and oversees World'sPoultry Congresses. It is active in all areas of the poultry industry, from family poultry in developing countries to institutions of research and learning, and production and processing in the industrial world. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
World's poultry science journal, 2011 Mar., v. 67, no. 1, p. 137-151.
Includes references Many different methods measuring meat quality traits are available which are based on different principles, and instruments and/or probes. In view of the complexity of meat processes after slaughter and quality trait determination, it is not surprising that the results obtained in different studies and laboratories are not always in agreement. For comparison of results it is therefore necessary to keep strictly to measurable specifications, which is why standardisation is indispensable. The Working Group 5 Poultry Meat Quality group of the WPSA European Federation has been asked to produce a document which would serve as a common base methodology that would permit comparison between research projects carried out by different groups, based on international research programmes. This paper represents the first step of this work including chemical (moisture, total lipids, proteins, ash, fatty acid composition, cholesterol, susceptibility to oxidation, amino acids, collagen and pigments) and physical traits (pH, R-value, colour, water holding capacity, texture and sarcomere length). For the evaluation of chemical composition, there are standard methods available which are largely adopted in the majority of published papers. However, there is still a need to standardise methods for determining the physical traits to facilitate comparisons between studies and to provide reference values.
sarcomeres - fatty acid composition - slaughter - water holding capacity - texture - pigments - oxidation - equipment - cholesterol - poultry meat - meat quality - collagen - color - amino acids - research programs - research projects - normal values
Asian - Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. June 2014, Vol. 27 Issue 6, p907, 9 p.
INTRODUCTION It is reported that at least 25% of the world's grains are contaminated with mycotoxins (Surai, 2006). Aflatoxins (AFs) are known to be very dangerous mycotoxins, with high toxicity [...] Alpha-lipoic acid ([alpha]-LA) is not only involved in energy metabolism, but is also a powerful antioxidant that can protect against hepatic oxidative stress induced by some drugs, toxins, or under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Here, we investigated the effect of [alpha]-LA against liver oxidative damage in broilers exposed to aflatoxin [B.sub.1] (AF[B.sub.1]). Birds were randomly divided into four groups and assigned different diets: basal diet, 300 mg/kg [alpha]-LA supplementation in basal diet, diet containing 74 [micro]g/kg [AFB.sub.1], and 300 mg/kg [alpha]-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 [micro]g/kg [AFB.sub.1], for 3 weeks. The results revealed that the addition of 300 mg/kg [alpha]-LA protected against the liver function damage of broilers induced by chronic low dose of [AFB.sub.1] as estimated by a significant (p < 0.05) change in levels of plasma total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and the activities of liver glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase. The histopathological analysis also showed that liver tissues were injured in the [AFB.sub.1] diet, but this effect was alleviated by the addition of 300 mg/kg [alpha]-LA. Additionally, [AFB.sub.1] induced a profound elevation of oxidative stress in birds, as indicated by an increase in malondialdehyde level, a decrease in glutathione peroxidase activity and a depletion of the glutathione content in the liver. All of these negative effects were inhibited by treatment with [alpha]-LA. Our results suggest that the inhibition of [AFB.sub.1]-induced excess production of lipid peroxides and the maintenance of intracellular antioxidant status may play important roles in the protective effects of [alpha]-LA against [AFB.sub.1]-induced oxidative damage in the liver. (Key Words: AflatoxinB1, Alpha-lipoic Acid, Liver, Oxidative Damage, Antioxidant)
Aflatoxins -- Health aspects - Liver -- Health aspects - Oxidative stress -- Research - Bioenergetics -- Research - Energy metabolism -- Research - Broilers (Poultry) -- Health aspects - Zoological research - China
Research Journal of Agricultural Science. 2013, Vol. 45 Issue 3, p204-208. 5p.
The quantitative and qualitative increase of the agricultural production is an important concern world wide. In the context of the world's increasing population, of the prognosis according to which the world's population will double until 2030 and of the diversification of requirements for agricultural raw materials in industry, the agricultural development becomes a primary goal at a global level and also at a local level for each country in particular. In terms of scientific foundation of the complex effects in the food chain, all agricultural systems are perfectible and can't fully achieve the objectives imposed by the human society, by the consumers and by the increasing requirements for the soil fertility. Through this study we want to clear some aspects concerning the organo-mineral fertilization effect on the maize production, hybrid-Monsanto Dekalb 4626, having a production potential of 8-14 t/ha. The experiments were conducted in 2012 on a chernozem type of soil (SRTS-2003), having a high towards a very high production potential. The vegetation period in 1012 was characterized by less favorable climatic conditions for obtaining a big, quality production due to a low rate of precipitation (much below the regular rate for that specific time of the year) and also due to high temperatures, events that led to productions that were very much below the production potential of the hybrid used in the experiments (2,6 - 4,6 t/ha maize). The differentiated fertilization variants included effects of mineral fertilizers originated from mineral NP fertilizers (in differentiated doses), of organic fertilizers originated from partially fermented stable manure (20t/ha) and partially fermented poultry manure (12t/ha). The production results revealed the beneficial nature of the organic-mineral combinations, where significant production increases were obtained in comparison with the unfertilized witness variant, below the production potential of this hybrid. The unfavorable climatic conditions led to an incomplete binding in the fructification phenophase, in some variants and at the variants that were fertilized with a maximum NP dose during the blooming phenophase, to the specific symptom in potassium deficiency, meaning that the "marginal necrosis" in corn leaves was emphasized. The agrochemical analysis on the corn leaves showed, at the variants that were fertilized with 150-200 kg active substance/ha, nitrogen and phosphorus, an accumulation that was close to the critical threshold regarding the nitrogen level and low towards poor regarding the potassium level. The importance of this study is resulting from the link between the accumulations of nutrients in corn plants at different nitrogen doses and climatic conditions during the corn vegetation period, even though the soil has an optimum level of nutrients from an agrochemical point of view. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
CORN yields - EFFECT of fertilizers on plants - AGRICULTURAL productivity research - NUTRITION - CORN - CROPS -- Nutrition
The introduction of the UK Protection of Animals Act 1911 demonstrates that animal welfare has been of concern for at least a century. The matter came to the fore about 50 years ago, when the welfare of hens in battery cages became an issue. Since then poultry welfare research and the development of superior management and housing systems for poultry have been stimulated by the lobbying of animal welfare organisations along with subsequent policy decisions and legislation. WPSA WG9 was formed in 1972 to encourage scientific studies to inform the poultry welfare debate; its members have positively influenced research and development of welfare-friendly housing systems and husbandry throughout Europe. They have also been active in EU projects aimed at improving the wellbeing of poultry e.g. LayWel, EFSA Opinions and Welfare Quality (R). Information derived from such projects has influenced EU Directives and national legislation on the protection and welfare of laying hens and broilers, in particular.
HERENTALS, Belgium, March 26, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Kemin Industries, a global nutritional ingredient company that uses science to create solutions and products that touch half the world's population, has released a novel study on the interaction of non-starch polysaccharides from wheat with the addition of feed enzymes, such as KEMZYME®. The study was published in Poultry Science, a high-impact international journal publishing original papers, research notes, symposium papers and reviews of basic science applied to poultry. The paper can be accessed online. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
NEW YORK, Jan. 9, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- The global surfactant chemical and material market should reach $44.9 billion by 2022 from $36 billion in 2017 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4.5%, from 2017 to 2022. Read the full report: https://www.reportlinker.com/p05273318• The detergents market of the surfactant chemical and material industry is expected to grow from $19.4 billion in 2017 to $24.6 billion in 2022 at a CAGR of 4.9% for the period 2017-2022. • The personal care market of the surfactant chemical and material industry is expected to grow from $4.5 billion in 2017 to $5.8 billion in 2022 at a CAGR of 5.1% for the period 2017-2022.Chapter 1: IntroductionSurfactants are surface-active substances that are used widely to trim down the surface tension of any liquid. They are ideal for effective cleaning. Detergents are one of the most used and known surfactant. Surfactants are classified as anionic, cationic, nonionic and amphoteric. Anionic surfactants account for the largest market share, while nonionic surfactants are also witnessing demand from various applications owing to their low foaming and effective emulsifying properties. Amphoteric surfactants are key ingredients of everyday products, such as detergents, shampoos and other personal care products. They account for a smaller market share. Cationic surfactants cost more, making them a smaller market share in terms of net worth when compared with anionic and nonionic types. Surfactants are further classified into synthetic and bio-based, depending on substrate. Synthetic surfactants are derived from crude oil, whereas bio-based surfactants are produced from natural sources such as palm oil and animal fats. Restrictive environmental regulations and concerns have increased demand of bio-based surfactants as they are naturally derived and cause less harm to the environment. Applications of the global surfactants market include detergent, personal care, textiles, crop protection, industry and institutional cleaners, elastomers and plastics, oilfield chemicals, food and beverages, and others. Domestic use of detergents and personal care applications are the largest market segments in terms of application. Food and beverage is growing at a CAGR of 3.8% due to growing use of surfactants as biocides to inhibit bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses that could interfere in fresh fruits, vegetables, fish and poultry. In addition, surfactants are also gaining attention and technological progression across different and unusual applications, such as for cleaning storage tanks, crude oil transportation, and enhanced oil recovery in the oil and gas industry, as biocides in the agricultural industry and as gene delivery and immunological adjuvant in the healthcare industry. The surfactants market is likely grow to almost $44.9 billion by 2022, from $34.8 billion in 2016, at a CAGR of 4.5% between 2017 and 2022. The key drivers responsible for the growth of the global surfactants market include growing end-user industries and changing lifestyles in developing economies. However, factors such as volatility in raw material prices, stringent regulations on environmental issues, pollution control laws for manufacturing processes, increasing inclination toward green products and governmental pressure to implement eco-friendly chemical processes will strongly slow down the market's growth. Asia-Pacific is the largest region in the surfactants market, followed by North America and Europe. The Asia-Pacific region is an amalgamation of vast economies, developing as well as developed. This region has some of the world's richest and developed nations. The region has wide scope of potential and sustained growth; thus, it attracts the major players of this industry. The reasons behind this steady growth are rising populations, and high demand of newer technologies and products from the developing regions. Improved lifestyles and increased cost of living have fostered the adoption of surfactants in various industries, such as personal care, soaps and detergents, and pharmaceutical industry. The hike in prices of raw materials, stringent environmental regulations and the toxic nature of these chemicals may lead to a downfall in their demand in near future. Therefore, this scenario shows a promising future for bio-based surfactants, which may replace other variants in terms of demand and production in the global market. Key players in global surfactants market include DowDuPont, Evonik Industries AG, Henkel AG and Co. KGaA, Huntsman Corp., Air Products and Chemicals, BASF SE, Clariant, DuPont EI DE Nemours and Co, Kao Corp., and Akzo Nobel N.V. The report provides market revenue for the global market for surfactant chemicals and materials for 2016 and 2017, and forecasts the five-year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) in the market until 2022. Study Goals and ObjectivesThis report provides a thorough and comprehensive multi-client study of the worldwide market for surfactant chemicals and materials along with emerging technologies and potential business opportunities in the future. Furthermore, it thoroughly covers the underlying economic issues driving the surfactant market, as well as assessments of new and potential technologies, products and services that companies are developing. This report also provides realistic market data and forecasts for the global surfactant chemicals and materials demand. This report begins with an overview of the chemistry and physics aspects of surfactants, and the processes used to produce surfactant products; it then moves on to specific applications for surfactant materials. It also gives detailed descriptions of the market's growth, developing technology trends, industry leaders, and applications for these surfactant products in North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America and the Rest of the World (ROW).Reasons for Doing This StudyThe demand for detergent, personal care products, textile application, industrial and institutional cleaning, elastomers and plastics, oilfield chemicals, crop protection and food and beverage industry are rising around the world, especially in the Asia-Pacific, North America and Europe regions, increasing the demand of various types of surfactant chemicals and materials. Mounting demand from domestic and industrial applications in the Asia-Pacific region are making it the largest market for surfactants. The surfactants market is driven by the demand from increasing populations in countries such as India, China, Indonesia and others. With so much growth and positive prospects, there is an urgent need of a comprehensive study on the global surfactant chemicals and materials industry. This study details the crucial role that surfactants play in enabling technologies that are important for the future. Despite numerous benefits, surfactants can be harmful for the environment and human health. Hence, several regulations are imposed by governments such as the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) to report them. These agencies monitor the toxicity levels of surfactants to keep them in the acceptable level. The stringent rules restrict the development of the overall surfactants market, as synthetic surfactants accounted for the major share in 2016, though the market players are steadily shifting to green and bio-based surfactants.Scope of ReportThe scope of this report is extensive as it covers four types of surfactants: anionic, nonionic, cationic and amphoteric. They have marked their presence in the global market, and are classified in terms of their ionic properties and their uses. Anionic surfactants are further broken down into five major types depending on the material used in production. The base production material for surfactants can be linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, secondary alkane sulfonate, alpha olefin sulfonates, methyl ester sulfonate and other anionic surfactants. Nonionic surfactants are divided into four types: alcohol ethoxylates, alkyl phenol ethoxylates, amine oxides and others. These are further get segregated into various subtypes based on region of use and application. The major applications of surfactants are in detergent, personal care, textile, crop protection, industry and institutional cleaners, elastomers and plastics, oilfield chemicals, food and beverages, and others. The report also covers the applications of each type of surfactant and their market shares. Additional breakdowns based on substrate type, which include synthetic surfactant and bio-based surfactants, their global markets and regional breakdowns are also covered. Bio-based surfactants come into two variants: chemically synthesized surfactants and bio-surfactants. The report covers their global markets and regional growth as well. The revenue forecasts from 2017 to 2022 are explained for surfactants by type, application and region, as well as each of their applications by region and application by surfactant type. The report also discusses major players across each sub-segment. It explains various aspects of surfactants such as the major market drivers and challenges, the current trends within the industry and major applications for the global surfactant chemicals and materials market. Information SourcesThe findings and conclusions of this report are based on information gathered from both primary and secondary research sources. The primary sources of information consist of industry association data, and interviews conducted with surfactant chemicals and materials companies and distributors. Secondary sources were also consulted for the report, comprising of industry journals and publications, product literature, white papers and technical journals, and financial reports for industry suppliers. The base year for analysis and projection is 2016, and market projections were developed from 2017 to 2022. These projections are based on a combination of a consensus among the primary contacts combined with our understanding of the key market drivers, and their impact from historical and analytical perspectives. The analytical methodologies used to generate the market estimates are described in detail in the market analysis. All dollar projections presented in this report are in 2016 constant dollars.MethodologyA descriptive study has been done with a trend analysis for the global market for surfactant chemicals and material with a quantitative and qualitative approach. BCC Research collects data by means of various trusted and reliable primary and secondary sources. The collection is done by a series of interviews with industry vendors, references from white papers, business journals, public financial proceedings and historical market data from the internet. The market data is assessed and validated considering interrelated market attributes and the impact of global economic variables. The value of the market is then obtained through a combination of the bottom-up and top-down approaches using exclusive market modeling tools to generate BCC Research's market data and forecasts. Estimated values used are based on manufacturers' total revenues.Geographic BreakdownIn this report, the geographic regions considered for market analysis include, and only include:North America• United States.• Mexico.• Canada.Europe• From Greenland (Denmark) to Russia and from Norway to Greece.Asia-Pacific• From Afghanistan to Japan and from Mongolia to New Zealand.South America• From Guatemala to Chile.ROW• Entire Middle East countries and entire African region.Read the full report: https://www.reportlinker.com/p05273318About ReportlinkerReportLinker is an award-winning market research solution. Reportlinker finds and organizes the latest industry data so you get all the market research you need - instantly, in one place. __________________________ Contact Clare: email@example.com US: (339)-368-6001 Intl: +1 339-368-6001 [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]