The world’s poultry industry has grown into a multibillion-dollar business, the success of which hinges on healthy intestinal tracts, which result in effective feed conversion. Enteric disease in poultry can have devastating economic effects on producers, due to high mortality rates and poor feed efficiency. Clostridia are considered to be among the most important agents of enteric disease in poultry. Diagnosis of enteric diseases produced by clostridia is usually challenging, mainly because many clostridial species can be normal inhabitants of the gut, making it difficult to determine their role in virulence. The most common clostridial enteric disease in poultry is necrotic enteritis, caused by Clostridium perfringens, which typically occurs in broiler chickens but has also been diagnosed in various avian species including turkeys, waterfowl, and ostriches. Diagnosis is based on clinical and pathological findings. Negative culture and toxin detection results may be used to rule out this disease, but isolation of C. perfringens and/or detection of its alpha toxin are of little value to confirm the disease because both are often found in the intestine of healthy birds. Ulcerative enteritis, caused by Clostridium colinum, is the other major clostridial enteric disease of poultry. Diagnosis of ulcerative enteritis is by documentation of typical pathological findings, coupled with isolation of C. colinum from the intestine of affected birds. Other clostridial enteric diseases include infections produced by Clostridium difficile, Clostridium fallax, and Clostridium baratii. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
CLOSTRIDIUM diseases in animals - CHICKEN diseases -- Research - INTESTINAL infections - CLOSTRIDIUM difficile -- Research - VETERINARY diagnosis
Abstract: India is one the world's five largest producers of livestock and poultry meat. The livestock sector contributes 28% of the country's agriculture gross domestic product and about 5% of the country's overall gross domestic product. Genetic improvement of livestock has been mainly dependent on the selective breeding with superior phenotypes. The use of molecular genetics techniques in association with conventional animal breeding tools are important to balance the process of selection and thus to optimize the animal breeding program. In this regard, the use of molecular markers is significantly important and it certainly has added advantages over conventional breeding techniques. On the basis of techniques used for the detection of molecular markers, two major categories have been identified: hybridization-based and polymerase chain reaction-based markers. Identification and use of markers for milk quality and production traits, disease resistance, and thermo-tolerance will ensure better health and productivity. Also, markers for fertility and carcass quality traits ensure faster and preferred growth in cattle. Apart from these, the use of different markers such as microsatellites for assessment of biodiversity will help the conservation of our indigenous germplasm. The present review deals with molecular markers and their application in versatile aspects that will prove beneficial for researchers and scientists to undertake further research to improve cattle health and production. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
GENETIC markers in cattle - CATTLE genetics research - GENETIC engineering of livestock - POULTRY - GROSS domestic product -- India - GENETIC techniques - ANIMAL breeding - HYBRIDIZATION - POLYMERASE chain reaction - MEDICAL literature reviews
Asian - Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. June 2014, Vol. 27 Issue 6, p907, 9 p.
INTRODUCTION It is reported that at least 25% of the world's grains are contaminated with mycotoxins (Surai, 2006). Aflatoxins (AFs) are known to be very dangerous mycotoxins, with high toxicity [...] Alpha-lipoic acid ([alpha]-LA) is not only involved in energy metabolism, but is also a powerful antioxidant that can protect against hepatic oxidative stress induced by some drugs, toxins, or under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Here, we investigated the effect of [alpha]-LA against liver oxidative damage in broilers exposed to aflatoxin [B.sub.1] (AF[B.sub.1]). Birds were randomly divided into four groups and assigned different diets: basal diet, 300 mg/kg [alpha]-LA supplementation in basal diet, diet containing 74 [micro]g/kg [AFB.sub.1], and 300 mg/kg [alpha]-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 [micro]g/kg [AFB.sub.1], for 3 weeks. The results revealed that the addition of 300 mg/kg [alpha]-LA protected against the liver function damage of broilers induced by chronic low dose of [AFB.sub.1] as estimated by a significant (p < 0.05) change in levels of plasma total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and the activities of liver glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase. The histopathological analysis also showed that liver tissues were injured in the [AFB.sub.1] diet, but this effect was alleviated by the addition of 300 mg/kg [alpha]-LA. Additionally, [AFB.sub.1] induced a profound elevation of oxidative stress in birds, as indicated by an increase in malondialdehyde level, a decrease in glutathione peroxidase activity and a depletion of the glutathione content in the liver. All of these negative effects were inhibited by treatment with [alpha]-LA. Our results suggest that the inhibition of [AFB.sub.1]-induced excess production of lipid peroxides and the maintenance of intracellular antioxidant status may play important roles in the protective effects of [alpha]-LA against [AFB.sub.1]-induced oxidative damage in the liver. (Key Words: AflatoxinB1, Alpha-lipoic Acid, Liver, Oxidative Damage, Antioxidant)
Aflatoxins -- Health aspects - Liver -- Health aspects - Oxidative stress -- Research - Bioenergetics -- Research - Energy metabolism -- Research - Broilers (Poultry) -- Health aspects - Zoological research - China
World's poultry science journal, 2011 Mar., v. 67, no. 1, p. 137-151.
Includes references Many different methods measuring meat quality traits are available which are based on different principles, and instruments and/or probes. In view of the complexity of meat processes after slaughter and quality trait determination, it is not surprising that the results obtained in different studies and laboratories are not always in agreement. For comparison of results it is therefore necessary to keep strictly to measurable specifications, which is why standardisation is indispensable. The Working Group 5 Poultry Meat Quality group of the WPSA European Federation has been asked to produce a document which would serve as a common base methodology that would permit comparison between research projects carried out by different groups, based on international research programmes. This paper represents the first step of this work including chemical (moisture, total lipids, proteins, ash, fatty acid composition, cholesterol, susceptibility to oxidation, amino acids, collagen and pigments) and physical traits (pH, R-value, colour, water holding capacity, texture and sarcomere length). For the evaluation of chemical composition, there are standard methods available which are largely adopted in the majority of published papers. However, there is still a need to standardise methods for determining the physical traits to facilitate comparisons between studies and to provide reference values.
sarcomeres - fatty acid composition - slaughter - water holding capacity - texture - pigments - oxidation - equipment - cholesterol - poultry meat - meat quality - collagen - color - amino acids - research programs - research projects - normal values
Research Journal of Agricultural Science. 2013, Vol. 45 Issue 3, p204-208. 5p.
The quantitative and qualitative increase of the agricultural production is an important concern world wide. In the context of the world's increasing population, of the prognosis according to which the world's population will double until 2030 and of the diversification of requirements for agricultural raw materials in industry, the agricultural development becomes a primary goal at a global level and also at a local level for each country in particular. In terms of scientific foundation of the complex effects in the food chain, all agricultural systems are perfectible and can't fully achieve the objectives imposed by the human society, by the consumers and by the increasing requirements for the soil fertility. Through this study we want to clear some aspects concerning the organo-mineral fertilization effect on the maize production, hybrid-Monsanto Dekalb 4626, having a production potential of 8-14 t/ha. The experiments were conducted in 2012 on a chernozem type of soil (SRTS-2003), having a high towards a very high production potential. The vegetation period in 1012 was characterized by less favorable climatic conditions for obtaining a big, quality production due to a low rate of precipitation (much below the regular rate for that specific time of the year) and also due to high temperatures, events that led to productions that were very much below the production potential of the hybrid used in the experiments (2,6 - 4,6 t/ha maize). The differentiated fertilization variants included effects of mineral fertilizers originated from mineral NP fertilizers (in differentiated doses), of organic fertilizers originated from partially fermented stable manure (20t/ha) and partially fermented poultry manure (12t/ha). The production results revealed the beneficial nature of the organic-mineral combinations, where significant production increases were obtained in comparison with the unfertilized witness variant, below the production potential of this hybrid. The unfavorable climatic conditions led to an incomplete binding in the fructification phenophase, in some variants and at the variants that were fertilized with a maximum NP dose during the blooming phenophase, to the specific symptom in potassium deficiency, meaning that the "marginal necrosis" in corn leaves was emphasized. The agrochemical analysis on the corn leaves showed, at the variants that were fertilized with 150-200 kg active substance/ha, nitrogen and phosphorus, an accumulation that was close to the critical threshold regarding the nitrogen level and low towards poor regarding the potassium level. The importance of this study is resulting from the link between the accumulations of nutrients in corn plants at different nitrogen doses and climatic conditions during the corn vegetation period, even though the soil has an optimum level of nutrients from an agrochemical point of view. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
CORN yields - EFFECT of fertilizers on plants - AGRICULTURAL productivity research - NUTRITION - CORN - CROPS -- Nutrition
The introduction of the UK Protection of Animals Act 1911 demonstrates that animal welfare has been of concern for at least a century. The matter came to the fore about 50 years ago, when the welfare of hens in battery cages became an issue. Since then poultry welfare research and the development of superior management and housing systems for poultry have been stimulated by the lobbying of animal welfare organisations along with subsequent policy decisions and legislation. WPSA WG9 was formed in 1972 to encourage scientific studies to inform the poultry welfare debate; its members have positively influenced research and development of welfare-friendly housing systems and husbandry throughout Europe. They have also been active in EU projects aimed at improving the wellbeing of poultry e.g. LayWel, EFSA Opinions and Welfare Quality (R). Information derived from such projects has influenced EU Directives and national legislation on the protection and welfare of laying hens and broilers, in particular.
Public Health Nutrition. Sep2015, Vol. 18 Issue 13, p2457-2467. 11p.
ObjectiveTo understand current public perceptions of in vitro meat (IVM) in light of its potential to be a more environmentally sustainable alternative to conventional meat.DesignA qualitative content analysis of the comments made on online news articles highlighting the development of IVM and the world’s first IVM hamburger in August 2013.SettingNews article comment sections across seven US-based online news sources (The New York Times, The Los Angeles Times, The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal, USA Today, Cable News Network and National Public Radio).SubjectsFour hundred and sixty-two commenters who made eight hundred and fourteen publicly available online comments addressing IVM.ResultsKey themes in commenter perceptions of IVM included environmental and public health benefits, but also negative themes such as IVM’s status as an unnatural and unappealing food. Overall, the tone of comments was more negative than positive.ConclusionsFindings suggest that while the environmental and public health motivations for developing and in turn consuming IVM resonate with some segments of the population, others find that reasoning both uncompelling and problematic. Concerns about IVM as an unnatural and risky product also appear to be a significant barrier to public acceptance of IVM. Supporters of IVM may wish to begin to develop a regulatory strategy for IVM to build public trust and explore messaging strategies that cast IVM as a new technology with benefits to individuals rather than primarily a solution to global challenges. Those in the public health nutrition field can make an important contribution to the emerging public discussion about IVM. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
MEAT analysis - ELECTRONIC newspapers - PUBLIC health research - IN vitro studies - NUTRITIONAL assessment - MEAT industry