The infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a major health threat to the world’s poultry industry despite intensive controls including proper biosafety practices and vaccination. IBDV (Avibirnavirus, Birnaviridae) is a non-enveloped virus with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome. The virus is traditionally classified into classic, variant and very virulent strains, each with different epidemiological relevance and clinical implications. Recently, a novel worldwide spread genetic lineage was described and denoted as distinct (d) IBDV. Here, we report the development and validation of a reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay for the specific detection of dIBDVs in the global poultry industry. The assay employs a TaqMan-MGB probe that hybridizes with a unique molecular signature of dIBDV. The assay successfully detected all the assessed strains belonging to the dIBDV genetic lineage, showing high specificity and absence of cross-reactivity with non-dIBDVs, IBDV-negative samples and other common avian viruses. Using serial dilutions ofin vitro-transcribed RNA we obtained acceptable PCR efficiencies and determination coefficients, and relatively small intra- and inter-assay variability. The assay demonstrated a wide dynamic range between 103and 108RNA copies/reaction. This rapid, specific and quantitative assay is expected to improve IBDV surveillance and control worldwide and to increase our understanding of the molecular epidemiology of this economically detrimental poultry pathogen. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
International Journal of One Health. Annual, 2017, Vol. 3, p28, 8 p.
Introduction For the past five decades, production in poultry industry has documented greater changes than in any other world's livestock subsector in agricultural production. Promising trends in livestock production indicate [...] Aim: Newcastle disease (ND) is an important viral disease for poultry caused by avian paramyxovirus which can be identified by its nature of agglutination activity with red blood cell (RBC) of different species. The study was aimed to characterize the hemagglutinating (HA) activity of ND virus (NDV) at three different temperatures using RBC of five avian species, six mammalian species, and eight different human blood groups. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from January to December 2014 at Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University. Five avian and six different mammalian species were selected for the study. In each species, two blood samples were collected aseptically. Eight different blood groups (A+, A-, B+, B-, AB+, AB-, O+, and O-) were studied in human. HA test was performed using two virus strains ND lasota and field isolate of very virulent NDV (VVNDV) with mentioned species of RBC at chilling (4[degrees]C), incubating (37[degrees]C), and room temperature (24[degrees]C). Results: Avian RBC requires less time for agglutination than mammalian RBC. Incubation temperature (37[degrees]C) requires lowest time and chilling temperature requires highest time for agglutination of RBC. Duck RBC requires lowest time (17.81 min) while chicken RBC needs highest (57.5 min) time for HA at incubation temperature and at chilling temperature, respectively, against ND lasota virus and with field strain. Goat RBC requires significantly higher time for HA (184.68 min) at chilling temperature than other mammalian species. Human RBC requires almost similar time but O+ and O- blood group do not show any HA activity. Significant variation (p<0.05) found in quail RBC at incubation temperature. In mammalian species, a significant difference (p<0.05) has been observed in goat and horse RBC at chilling; horse and dog RBC at incubation; goat, horse, buffalo, and dog RBC at room temperature. In human, significant variation (p<0.05) has been found in A+, A- and B- blood group in chilling, in B+ blood group at incubation and A+, B+, B-, AB- blood group at room temperature against two virus strains. Conclusion: ND is considered as an economically significant disease which is highly contagious in nature infecting many avian species. The threat of ND outbreak to poultry industry necessitates effective control measures to reduce the burden in commercial and backyard farming in Bangladesh. Keywords: chilling temperature, hemagglutination, incubation temperature, Newcastle disease virus, Newcastle disease virus lasota strain, very virulent Newcastle disease virus strain
Newcastle disease -- Research - Poultry industry -- Research - Bangladesh
The World'sPoultry Science Association was originally formed as the International Association of Poultry Instructors and Investigators in 1912. Its objectives were to foster the development of the poultry industry, and the exchange of information related to poultry science and technology. From small beginnings it has evolved into a strong international organisation with 7700 members in more than 80 countries. The association publishes the World'sPoultry Science Journal and promotes and oversees World'sPoultry Congresses. It is active in all areas of the poultry industry, from family poultry in developing countries to institutions of research and learning, and production and processing in the industrial world. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
Sauerborn, Christina / 28 Fordham Intell. Prop. Media & Ent. L.J. 571 (2017-2018) / Fordham Intellectual Property, Media & Entertainment Law Journal, Vol. 28, Issue 3 (Spring 2018), pp. 571-636
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Sima, Yangzi; O'Sullivan, Siobhan / 12 Int'l J. L. Context 1 (March 2016) / International Journal of Law in Context, Vol. 12, Issue 1 (March 2016), pp. 1-23
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World's poultry science journal, 2011 Mar., v. 67, no. 1, p. 137-151.
Includes references Many different methods measuring meat quality traits are available which are based on different principles, and instruments and/or probes. In view of the complexity of meat processes after slaughter and quality trait determination, it is not surprising that the results obtained in different studies and laboratories are not always in agreement. For comparison of results it is therefore necessary to keep strictly to measurable specifications, which is why standardisation is indispensable. The Working Group 5 Poultry Meat Quality group of the WPSA European Federation has been asked to produce a document which would serve as a common base methodology that would permit comparison between research projects carried out by different groups, based on international research programmes. This paper represents the first step of this work including chemical (moisture, total lipids, proteins, ash, fatty acid composition, cholesterol, susceptibility to oxidation, amino acids, collagen and pigments) and physical traits (pH, R-value, colour, water holding capacity, texture and sarcomere length). For the evaluation of chemical composition, there are standard methods available which are largely adopted in the majority of published papers. However, there is still a need to standardise methods for determining the physical traits to facilitate comparisons between studies and to provide reference values.
sarcomeres - fatty acid composition - slaughter - water holding capacity - texture - pigments - oxidation - equipment - cholesterol - poultry meat - meat quality - collagen - color - amino acids - research programs - research projects - normal values