The infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a major health threat to the world’s poultry industry despite intensive controls including proper biosafety practices and vaccination. IBDV (Avibirnavirus, Birnaviridae) is a non-enveloped virus with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome. The virus is traditionally classified into classic, variant and very virulent strains, each with different epidemiological relevance and clinical implications. Recently, a novel worldwide spread genetic lineage was described and denoted as distinct (d) IBDV. Here, we report the development and validation of a reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay for the specific detection of dIBDVs in the global poultry industry. The assay employs a TaqMan-MGB probe that hybridizes with a unique molecular signature of dIBDV. The assay successfully detected all the assessed strains belonging to the dIBDV genetic lineage, showing high specificity and absence of cross-reactivity with non-dIBDVs, IBDV-negative samples and other common avian viruses. Using serial dilutions ofin vitro-transcribed RNA we obtained acceptable PCR efficiencies and determination coefficients, and relatively small intra- and inter-assay variability. The assay demonstrated a wide dynamic range between 103and 108RNA copies/reaction. This rapid, specific and quantitative assay is expected to improve IBDV surveillance and control worldwide and to increase our understanding of the molecular epidemiology of this economically detrimental poultry pathogen. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
Journal of World's Poultry Research , Vol 7, Iss 1, Pp 08-14 (2017)
Backyard poultry plays an important role in livelihoods of Indian farmers. Research and Development efforts on developing improved strains to enhance productivity have enhanced farmer’s income. Scaling up of improved strains is based on adaptive trials conducted by extension agencies for location specificity and feasibility. The present study is a first time report in India on the performance of newly released Kaveri poultry in the backyard production system through an on farm trial by Krishi Vigyan Kendra-Khordha, the farm science centre of Indian council of agricultural research at the district level. Kaveri birds have characteristic features like low early chick and laying mortality, excellent flock uniformity, early sexual maturity, withstanding predators, laying brown colour eggs etc. The participatory trial was organised at 30 farmer’s fields administering participatory approach by providing 300 chicks to the farmers. The biggest gain of Kaveri poultry in the trial was the body weight, which was recorded to be 3200 gm in male and 2800 gm in female birds at the end of 12 months study period compared to the 1750 gm and 1250 gm respectively with the local strains. Kaveri chicks exhibited superiority in their liveability with a mortality rate of 15% during the critical period of the first 10 weeks of their life compared to the most popular backyard improved strain Vanaraja in which it is up to 24% in the backyard system. Majority of the farmers perceived that this strain can withstand predation which scores better than the other improved strains. The study concluded that Kaveri is suitable for backyard farming system and is highly profitable. Attempts were taken in 2016 to link the results of the strain assessment to the mainstream extension at the district for larger adoption of rural communities.
Journal of World's Poultry Research , Vol 6, Iss 3, Pp 121-130 (2016)
Although previous research has been conducted to understand Mauritian consumers’ knowledge of food safety risks, there is a lack of research on their knowledge, perception, and behavior towards risks associated with poultry sold in markets. Recently, there has been heightened concern regarding a particular market located in the capital of Mauritius. The market was previously sanctioned for malpractices due to unsafe trade of poultry. The target group identified in this study was therefore customers who regularly purchased poultry from the mentioned market who are thought to have inadequate knowledge in food hygiene, safety and microbiology. Therefore a study was carried out at the market to investigate the knowledge and perceptions of Mauritian consumers, on safe and hygienic handling of poultry and shed light on their domestic poultry preparation practices, and understand their attitudes and disposition towards poultry safety. A survey instrument was developed and administered, and data were collected during the period of June-November 2014. The results of this study showed that respondents often lacked knowledge of basic concepts in food safety, rendering them more prone to unsafe food practices. Moreover, poultry consumers, particularly the young demographic, were found to carry out unsafe food behaviors due to an optimistic bias, an illusion of control or habitual behavior. Poor regard to prevention of cross-contamination was noted. Lack of specific technical knowledge was estimated to be the central reason for unsafe behavior during poultry preparation. It was therefore recommended that education on food safety should start at an early age. Moreover, food labels should be designed to protect consumers from heath risks due to consumption of unsafe food and the media should wield a greater role in educating consumers on food safety
The World'sPoultry Science Association was originally formed as the International Association of Poultry Instructors and Investigators in 1912. Its objectives were to foster the development of the poultry industry, and the exchange of information related to poultry science and technology. From small beginnings it has evolved into a strong international organisation with 7700 members in more than 80 countries. The association publishes the World'sPoultry Science Journal and promotes and oversees World'sPoultry Congresses. It is active in all areas of the poultry industry, from family poultry in developing countries to institutions of research and learning, and production and processing in the industrial world. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
Journal of World's Poultry Research , Vol 7, Iss 1, Pp 23-26 (2017)
Ascaridia galli is a major encountered species of nemathelminthes in the domestic fowl from all around the world. The parasite causes many pathological conditions which may lead to production losses in the poultry industry. Life cycle of the nematode is direct and involves a single host. Adult parasites present in the small intestine but, erratically they can migrate to the other visceral organs including oviduct. In the study, we isolated two adult female parasites of species A. galli from albumin portion of the poultry egg. Isolated parasites as well as extracted eggs were examined by parasitological techniques. While erratic migration, It may lead the mechanical transmission of enteric pathogens including Salmonella spp. to the egg. Such reports may lead to consumer complaints as well as health problems in the people who consume raw eggs. Poultry egg harbouring such nematode and Salmonella organisms is a cause of concern, as it is widely consumed by people
Journal of World's Poultry Research , Vol 9, Iss 3, Pp 147-152 (2016)
The first outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in Nigeria was in 2006 and it involved different poultry species, mostly chickens in different ages, reared and bred on the same premises with some numbers of ducks, geese, turkeys and ostriches. To determine the effect of HPAI on mixed species poultry farming in the face of the ongoing 2015-2016 resurgent HPAI in Nigeria, data of confirmed 2006-2008 HPAI H5N1 outbreak in poultry were expressed as percentage proportions and used to produce spatial map using ArcGIS10.3 (ESRI®, USA) against some ecological features of the country. The outbreaks were more clustered in poultry farm dense areas especially in the northern states while very few clustering were observed around Important Bird Area and wetlands. A total of 177,996 (25.9%) on farm bird mortality was recorded from the selected outbreaks. From the backyard flock, the total mortality was 25, 915 birds (14.6%) and from the commercial flock, total mortality was 152, 081 birds (85.4%). The commercial flocks recorded higher mortality rate (P< 0.0001). In the single species flock, total mortality recorded was 173, 425 (25.5%) while in the mixed species flock, total mortality was 4, 571 (52.9%). Mortality rate was much higher in the mixed species flock (P< 0.0001) and ranged from 4.92 – 73.15% with the chicken-duck-turkey mixed flock farms having the highest rate (73.15%). Results show a higher risk of HPAI disease occurrence in multiple, mixed species poultry than in single species poultry production.
HPAI - Mixed species - Nigeria - Poultry - Animal culture - Veterinary medicine
Journal of World's Poultry Research , Vol 6, Iss 3, Pp 139-146 (2016)
This study was carried out in Gezira state, Sudan to investigate the effects of housing and equipment status on egg production in open layer houses. Data were collected through individual interviews (questionnaire) of 97 randomly selected among poultry farm owners. The height of 80% of north and south sides of wall were 50-100 cm in Almanagil, 76.5% in Alkamleen and 57%in south of the Gezira localities, while the height of the wall side at the east and west were (3-3.5m) in all (100%) houses in east of the Gezira, 77.8% in Alhasahesa, 60% in Almanagil and 47.1% in Alkamleen. The width was 5-8m in most poultry houses in Gezira State's localities surveyed. In Greater Medani, all the houses were at the width mentioned above while 76.4% and 73.5% in of those building were 5-8 cm in Almanagil, and Alkamleen localities respectively. The most of wall houses were not painted where 50% of those houses were with painted walls in east of the Gezira and 76% in Alkamleen locality. The most floor types were made of bricks. Flours with that type were 55.6% in Alhasahesa and 76.5% in Alkamleen locality. The layer of sand was thin in the major litter type of poultry houses surveyed in Gezira state localities though some houses were without litter, which affect birds’ performance by low ventilation and insulation. Round feeders of 40 - 50 cm length were the majority feeders’ type observed. In Alhasahesa 55.6% houses had that type of feeders while all houses surveyed had round feeders in east of the Gezira and Greater Medani localities. Oil containers were used as drinkers in most poultry houses surveyed. The troughs were with unsuitable height for hens to drink conveniently. The percent of house with that type of drinkers were 58.8% in Alkamleen and south of the Gezira localities. Birds/feeder and birds/drinker capacity varied between 50 and 75 birds. Clay pots were the mostly used egg nest type in the state. That type of nests were used by 88.2% of farm owners in Greater Medani to 100% in east of the Gezira, Alhasahesa and Almanagil localities. In average one egg nest was allotted to 15 hens. Yearly monitored egg production ranged between 60-70%.
Layer - Production constraints - Housing - Equipment - Animal culture - Veterinary medicine
Journal of World's Poultry Research , Vol 6, Iss 1, Pp 25-30 (2016)
The study investigates the urban household demand for poultry products in Ado Local Government areas of Ekiti State, Nigeria. A two-stage sampling technique was used to select respondents for the study. Ten wards were randomly selected in Ado local government area and this was followed by a random selection of twelve households from each selected ward, making a total number of 120 respondents used for the survey with the aid of structured questionnaires. The analytical techniques used include descriptive statistics like mean, minimum value, maximum value; standard deviation and linear regression analysis were used to analyze the relationship between the household’s socio-economic characteristics and the amount spent on poultry products. The results obtained revealed that majority of the household (45.4) percent believed that taste of the poultry product determine the demand for poultry products, the mean amount spent on poultry product monthly is ₦4,918.61(24.59USD) which is very low, it may be due to the high price of poultry products or easy accessibility to a close substitute which made respondents demand for more substitutes than poultry products and the regression analysis for the determinant of households demand for poultry products reveals that variables such as “years spent in formal education, household size and average monthly income” had positive effect on amount spent on poultry products. There should be a policy measure that will ensure increase in purchasing power of the people’s income which will invariably contribute positively to the improvement of nutritional status of the people and government price intervention program should be introduced in order to stabilize the fluctuation of poultry products prices.
Journal of World's Poultry Research , Vol 6, Iss 1, Pp 18-24 (2016)
This study was carried out in Gezira state, Sudan to investigate feed and drinking water composition and contamination in open layer houses. Data was collected through individual interviews (questionnaires) of 97 randomly selected poultry farm owners during farms visits. Water and feed samples were collected from 20% of the visited farms and data was analyzed using SPSS. Results indicated that feed samples obtained from farms and mills had higher levels of crude protein than recommended; it was about (23-25%) in all localities, which affect birds’ kidney that negatively affect egg production. Metabolizable energy was in the recommended range in all localities. There was high fungal growth and aflatoxins presence in feeds in many localities. Total fungal count was from 113 colonies/g in Greater Medani municipality to 2850 colonies/gr in Almanagil municipality and aflatoxins were from 37.5% in Alkamleen to 66.7% in South of the Gezira and Greater Medani localities. Feed ingredients were also contaminated with fungal growth and aflatoxins presence. Drinking water indicated high pH and total hardness in many localities. There was also high bacterial total count in all localities and E-coli was from 5 colonies/ml in Alhasahesa municipality in the north to Greater Medani municipality mto150 colonies/ml in East of the Gezira locality. It was recommended that measures be taken to ensure poultry feed and drinking water safety in addition to adjusting feed composition to nutrients requirements for the specific production to sustain high productivity.
Poultry feed - Nutritive value - Contaminants - Animal culture - Veterinary medicine
World's poultry science journal, 2011 Mar., v. 67, no. 1, p. 137-151.
Includes references Many different methods measuring meat quality traits are available which are based on different principles, and instruments and/or probes. In view of the complexity of meat processes after slaughter and quality trait determination, it is not surprising that the results obtained in different studies and laboratories are not always in agreement. For comparison of results it is therefore necessary to keep strictly to measurable specifications, which is why standardisation is indispensable. The Working Group 5 Poultry Meat Quality group of the WPSA European Federation has been asked to produce a document which would serve as a common base methodology that would permit comparison between research projects carried out by different groups, based on international research programmes. This paper represents the first step of this work including chemical (moisture, total lipids, proteins, ash, fatty acid composition, cholesterol, susceptibility to oxidation, amino acids, collagen and pigments) and physical traits (pH, R-value, colour, water holding capacity, texture and sarcomere length). For the evaluation of chemical composition, there are standard methods available which are largely adopted in the majority of published papers. However, there is still a need to standardise methods for determining the physical traits to facilitate comparisons between studies and to provide reference values.
sarcomeres - fatty acid composition - slaughter - water holding capacity - texture - pigments - oxidation - equipment - cholesterol - poultry meat - meat quality - collagen - color - amino acids - research programs - research projects - normal values
Asian - Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. June 2014, Vol. 27 Issue 6, p907, 9 p.
INTRODUCTION It is reported that at least 25% of the world's grains are contaminated with mycotoxins (Surai, 2006). Aflatoxins (AFs) are known to be very dangerous mycotoxins, with high toxicity [...] Alpha-lipoic acid ([alpha]-LA) is not only involved in energy metabolism, but is also a powerful antioxidant that can protect against hepatic oxidative stress induced by some drugs, toxins, or under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Here, we investigated the effect of [alpha]-LA against liver oxidative damage in broilers exposed to aflatoxin [B.sub.1] (AF[B.sub.1]). Birds were randomly divided into four groups and assigned different diets: basal diet, 300 mg/kg [alpha]-LA supplementation in basal diet, diet containing 74 [micro]g/kg [AFB.sub.1], and 300 mg/kg [alpha]-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 [micro]g/kg [AFB.sub.1], for 3 weeks. The results revealed that the addition of 300 mg/kg [alpha]-LA protected against the liver function damage of broilers induced by chronic low dose of [AFB.sub.1] as estimated by a significant (p < 0.05) change in levels of plasma total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and the activities of liver glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase. The histopathological analysis also showed that liver tissues were injured in the [AFB.sub.1] diet, but this effect was alleviated by the addition of 300 mg/kg [alpha]-LA. Additionally, [AFB.sub.1] induced a profound elevation of oxidative stress in birds, as indicated by an increase in malondialdehyde level, a decrease in glutathione peroxidase activity and a depletion of the glutathione content in the liver. All of these negative effects were inhibited by treatment with [alpha]-LA. Our results suggest that the inhibition of [AFB.sub.1]-induced excess production of lipid peroxides and the maintenance of intracellular antioxidant status may play important roles in the protective effects of [alpha]-LA against [AFB.sub.1]-induced oxidative damage in the liver. (Key Words: AflatoxinB1, Alpha-lipoic Acid, Liver, Oxidative Damage, Antioxidant)
Aflatoxins -- Health aspects - Liver -- Health aspects - Oxidative stress -- Research - Bioenergetics -- Research - Energy metabolism -- Research - Broilers (Poultry) -- Health aspects - Zoological research - China
Journal of World's Poultry Research , Vol 6, Iss 1, Pp 31-36 (2016)
Probiotics are live microbial food/feed ingredients that have a beneficial effect on health that stimulates the growth of beneficial microorganisms and reduces the amount of pathogens, thus improving the intestinal microbial balance of the host and lowering the risk of gastro-intestinal diseases. Probiotics can be harmful to debilitated and immuno-compromised populations. An accurate dosage of administration has yet to be established despite the wide-use of probiotics. Probiotics have antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, hypocholesterolemic, antihypertensive, anti-osteoporosis, and immunomodulatory effects. Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Leuconostoc, Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Bacillus, Saccharomyces, Aspergillus and Pediococcus species are most commonly used probiotics in poultry production. When supplemented to chicken probiotics improve feed-intake, growth performance, meat quality, egg production, egg quality and have cholesterol lowering potential in poultry products. However, some studies reported no significant effect of probiotics on feed-intake, production traits, products’ quality and cholesterol level.
Journal of World's Poultry Research , Vol 5, Iss 3, Pp 64-72 (2015)
The poultry industry in Botswana has experienced tremendous growth over time and remains the most celebrated example of import substitution, which has resulted in the achievement of national food self-sufficiency. This study evaluated and characterized the structure of poultry value chain in Botswana. Specifically, it identified the actors, linkages, challenges faced by the players; and also assessed the relative importance of specific flows of poultry products. A structured questionnaire was administered to 40 poultry farmers, 10 input dealers, 10 retail stores and 5 Ministry of Agriculture extension staff using a purposive sampling technique. The results showed market access for small-scale farmers was undermined by the increasing complexity of value chain and increased vertical coordination of resources. Therefore, the reality of economies of scale and the need to establish strong marketing links with existing supermarkets by smallholder farmers for a more competitive poultry industry is inevitable. The poultry market structure is dominated by a few large-scale farmers. On a Likert scale of 1 to 4, these farmers scored an average of 3.62 in comparison to 2.60 scored by small-scale farmers, when their working relationship levels with other players were explored. These results implied that large-scale farmers have stronger linkages. The study also found out that poultry industry still faces some challenges that impede its growth and one such challenge is high feed prices. Therefore, policies aimed at supporting the industry players must be developed with a view to ensuring sustainable development of the subsector and enhancing the benefit derived by the player.
Botswana - Marketing - Poultry Industry - Value Chain - Vertical Coordination - Animal culture - Veterinary medicine
Journal of World's Poultry Research , Vol 5, Iss 3, Pp 42-47 (2015)
The increased prevalence of Salmonella contamination in poultry has gained considerable scientific attention during the last few decades. Poultry is one of the most common reservoirs of Salmonella and contamination of poultry products can occur during the different stages of poultry production. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistant Salmonella in poultry and poultry products in Mauritius. Thirty poultry samples were analyzed for Salmonella using traditional culturing, serological and PCR assays. The isolates were then tested for resistance against five antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, streptomycin and tetracycline) using the disc diffusion susceptibility test. Serotyping showed positive agglutination for Salmonella using polyvalent Anti-O and Anti-H antisera. Out of the 30 samples tested, only 5 samples were confirmed as Salmonella. It was found that 72% of isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic. The frequency of antibiotic resistance ranked in the following order: tetracycline (100%), erythromycin (80%), streptomycin (80%), chloramphenicol (60%) respectively. However, 2 out of 5 isolates were susceptible to ampicillin. The findings of this study strongly indicated that antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella spp. observed in this study are comparable to patterns of other countries
Journal of World's Poultry Research , Vol 5, Iss 4, Pp 73-83 (2015)
Pest infestation, in general such as flies, is a problem faced by poultry workers in poultry breeding farms. Control of these populations is desirable, due to the damage they cause and, most times, it is done through chemical management, with insecticide application. Musca domestica is one of the species with the greatest ability to develop resistance to insecticides, and the digestive system, especially the midgut, is one of the most vulnerable organs to structural alteration, because in it there is production of digestive enzymes and absorption of nutrients. Damage caused by use of synthetic insecticides reactivated studies with bioinsecticides for being one of the most selective options in pest control. Furthermore, they do not cause environmental alterations such as food, soil, water poisoning and they are practically nontoxic to mammals. Among vegetable species with insecticidal activities that have been used a lot, we have neem, subtropical plant that shows low residual power and lower risk of intoxication for mammals and poultry. Thus the objectives that guided this work, was the observation of morphological alteration in M. domestica larvae and malformation of pupae after the use of neem, powder and emulsifiable oil at different concentrations (0,5%, 1%, 1,5%) were tested. Following, after the applications, the midgut of flies in larval stage was isolated, processed and analyzed under light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. As in most dipterous, the cell types found were columnar cells and regenerative cells, which showed alterations such as: coalescing vacuoles, intercellular spaces, formation of cytoplasmic protrusions, broken microvilli, rough endoplasmic reticulum and dilated mitochondria. The statistical analysis registered for pupa malformation showed significant results in comparison to control, but there was no difference among treatments. The different concentrations of neem oil contributed in altering morphological and ultrastructurally the midgut in M. domestica larvae, interrupting its development. These results showed that in poultry breeding farms, neem oil can be a pratical alternative to the control of M. domestica.