Biofuel Research Journal, Vol 4, Iss 3, Pp 638-653 (2017)
Urban public transportation sector in general is heavily dependent on fossil-oriented fuels, e.g., diesel. Given the fact that a major proportion of urban pollution and the consequent threats towards public health are attributed to this sector, serious efforts at both technical and political levels have been being made to introduce less-polluting fueling regimes, e.g., partial replacement of diesel with biodiesel. In line with that, the present study was aimed at evaluating the emissions attributed to 5% blends of waste cooking oil (WCO) and poultry fat (PF) biodiesel fuels (i.e., B5-WCO and B5-PF fuel blends) when used in urban buses during idle operation mode. Moreover, the attributional and consequential environmental impacts of using these fuel blends were also investigated through a well to wheel life cycle assessment (LCA) by considering the real-world condition combustion data using ten urban buses. The findings of the ALCA revealed that the application of 1 L B5-WCO fuel blend could potentially reduce the environmental burdens in human health, ecosystem quality, and resources damage categories compared with using the B5-PF fuel blend. The situation was opposite for climate change damage category in which using 1 L B5-PF fuel blend had a lower impact on the environment. Overall, the environmental hotspots in the B5-WCO and B5-PF life cycles were identified as the combustion stage as well as the diesel production and transportation. From the consequential perspective, using 1 L B5-WCO fuel blend could potentially decrease the environmental burdens in human health, ecosystem quality, and resources damage categories. While, the situation was different for climate change damage category where using 1 L B5-PF fuel blend could have a lower impact on the environment. In conclusion, using B5-WCO fuel blend as an alternative for diesel could be an environmentally-friendly decision for the Iranian urban transportation sector at the policy level as long as the marginal suppliers of oil would be the same as the countries considered herein, i.e., Malaysia and Argentina.
Urban public transportation sector - Bus - Idle operation - Biodiesel - Attributional LCA - Consequential LCA - Fuel - TP315-360 - Energy industries. Energy policy. Fuel trade - HD9502-9502.5
International Journal of Low Carbon Technologies. Dec2018, Vol. 13 Issue 4, p404-413. 10p. 1 Color Photograph, 5 Diagrams, 7 Charts, 5 Graphs.
Despite the promise of abundant renewable energy resources in the world, the poultry sector is still dominated by traditional energy sources. In this study, results of a field trial of an innovative and cost-effective HVAC system design applied to a poultry house have been presented. This system comprises of two integrated novel components; a polyethylene heat exchanger (PHE) based a photovoltaic thermal (PVt) array and an efficient and innovative ground pipe array coupled to a heat pump driven HVAC system. The analysis included the daily PV electrical output and heat pump performance. The results of the experimental study reveal that 3733 kWh and 2432 kWh heat energy have been supplied in the 7-week growth cycle of chickens condition, respectively. The COP of the HP has been calculated for the winter period and observed between 2.3 and 2.43. The PV system was able to generate 1876 kWh electrical energy with potential to meet HP's energy needs in the most energy needing period. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a major health threat to the world’s poultry industry despite intensive controls including proper biosafety practices and vaccination. IBDV (Avibirnavirus, Birnaviridae) is a non-enveloped virus with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome. The virus is traditionally classified into classic, variant and very virulent strains, each with different epidemiological relevance and clinical implications. Recently, a novel worldwide spread genetic lineage was described and denoted as distinct (d) IBDV. Here, we report the development and validation of a reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay for the specific detection of dIBDVs in the global poultry industry. The assay employs a TaqMan-MGB probe that hybridizes with a unique molecular signature of dIBDV. The assay successfully detected all the assessed strains belonging to the dIBDV genetic lineage, showing high specificity and absence of cross-reactivity with non-dIBDVs, IBDV-negative samples and other common avian viruses. Using serial dilutions ofin vitro-transcribed RNA we obtained acceptable PCR efficiencies and determination coefficients, and relatively small intra- and inter-assay variability. The assay demonstrated a wide dynamic range between 103and 108RNA copies/reaction. This rapid, specific and quantitative assay is expected to improve IBDV surveillance and control worldwide and to increase our understanding of the molecular epidemiology of this economically detrimental poultry pathogen. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
The World'sPoultry Science Association (WPSA) is a long-established and unique organization that strives to advance knowledge and understanding of all aspects of poultry science and the poultry industry. Its 3 main aims are education, organization, and research. The WPSA Keynote Lecture, titled “Modeling as a research tool in poultry science,” addresses 2 of these aims, namely, the value of modeling in research and education. The role of scientists is to put forward and then to test theories. These theories, or models, may be simple or highly complex, but they are aimed at improving our understanding of a system or the interaction between systems. In developing a model, the scientist must take into account existing knowledge, and in this process gaps in our knowledge of a system are identified. Useful ideas for research are generated in this way, and experiments may be designed specifically to address these issues. The resultant models become more accurate and more useful, and can be used in education and extension as a means of explaining many of the complex issues that arise in poultry science. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
POULTRY -- Societies, etc. - POULTRY industry - POULTRY research - SIMULATION methods & models - ORGANIZATIONAL aims & objectives - KNOWLEDGE gap theory
Bulletin of the University of Agricultural Sciences 2018, Vol. 75 Issue 1, p1-4, 4p
Growing guinea-fowls is an area of less research activity, although meat and eggs from this species are increasingly sought by consumers around the world. In addition, there is a number of very valuable biological features that makes this sector such attractive. This paper deals with a study on the productive performance of the gray guinea fowl under controlled ambient conditions. The biological material consisted of 50 specimens of guinea-fowls, purchased from a producer in our country. Those guinea fowls were grown according to the species-specific technology, from one day to 77 days. The target indicators were body weight, weight gain, feed consumption and stockholding proportion, determined in accordance with the poultryresearch methodology. The data were statistically processed using the Anova (Analysis of variance) program. For the gray guinea fowl, the growing period has been divided into three stages of age, differentiated by the protein level of the feed. At the time of population, the body weight of birds was 28.09 ± 0.35 g, and on the day of slaughter (77th day), 1923.76 ± 18.29 g. This weight was achieved with a feed conversion index of 1: 3.64. The gray guinea fowl exhibits good organic resistance and ensures satisfactory meat production under conditions of optimal nutrient feeding. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Publisher: Informa Healthcare Country of Publication: England NLM ID: 8210638 Publication Model: Print Cited Medium: Internet ISSN: 1465-3338 (Electronic) Linking ISSN: 03079457 NLM ISO Abbreviation: Avian Pathol. Subsets: MEDLINE
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The present review is aimed at the non-specialist reader and is one of a number being ...
Publisher: Informa Healthcare Country of Publication: England NLM ID: 8210638 Publication Model: Print Cited Medium: Internet ISSN: 1465-3338 (Electronic) Linking ISSN: 03079457 NLM ISO Abbreviation: Avian Pathol. Subsets: MEDLINE
The present review is aimed at the non-specialist reader and is one of a number being written on important diseases of poultry to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the birth of Avian Pathology, the journal of the World Veterinary Poultry Association. The diseases of the avian leukosis complex have a number of features of distinction. They were the first neoplastic diseases in any species to be shown, 100 years ago, to be transmissible and caused by viruses, and have consequently been studied extensively by biomedical scientists as models for the role of viruses in cancer. They also became, from around the 1920s, the major cause of mortality and economic loss to the developed poultry industry, and were studied by agricultural scientists searching to understand and control them. The remit of the review is to cover research carried out over the 40 years since 1971, when the journal was founded. In this review on avian leukosis, an introductory summary is given of knowledge acquired over the preceding 60 years. Subsequently a selection is provided of discoveries, both fundamental and more applied, that seem to us to be of particular importance and interest. Much of the work was carried out by biomedical scientists interested in cancer. Probably the most significant was the discovery in the avian retroviruses of oncogenes that cause leukosis and other tumours and of their origin from proto-oncogenes in normal cells. These oncogenes are involved in cancer in many species, including chickens and humans. Other work was performed by agricultural scientists interested in poultry disease. Interests of the two groups have overlapped, particularly as a result of a shift of emphasis to molecular biology research.
Animals - Avian Leukosis Virus metabolism - History, 20th Century - History, 21st Century - Poultry - Avian Leukosis pathology - Avian Leukosis virology - Avian Leukosis Virus genetics - Research history - Retroviridae Proteins genetics
Henk Hupkes June 6, 1947 - November 25, 2018 On Sunday November 25, 2018 the Dutch branch of the WPSA lost a charismatic member Henk Hupkes. Henk started his poultry career at Meyn Food Processing Technology B.V. in 1982: his graduation in Mechanical Engineering from the Technical University in Delft provided a good basis for his diverse tasks. Henk provided an indispensable bridge between poultry processing equipment manufacturers and the scientific world. In 1982 he became a member of WPSA NL and was a member of the regional Board from 1986 to 1992. He was member of the organising committee of the successful WPC held in 1992 in Amsterdam, after which he became member and secretary of the Board of the Foundation for Promoting Poultry Science until his death in November 2018. From 1982 to 2010 he attended about all WPCs and EPCs, as well as the symposia of Working Group 5 (poultry meat). In all cases his presence was undeniable due to his eagerness to learn, his friendly and optimistic attitude, and his sense of humour. Since 2015 Henk suffered from cancer, a battle he couldn't win. He finally lost the battle at the age of 71. Henk is greatly missed by his loved ones and his many friends inside and outside the WPSA. He is remembered with respect, warmth and gratitude. Jim McNab April 5, 1940 – January 1, 2019 It is with great sadness that I have to announce the death of Dr Jim McNab, who died suddenly on January 1st. He was born in Comrie, Perthshire to Mary and Donald, in April 1940, and was much loved by his parents and his sister Mary. Jim excelled in school, at Morrison's Academy in Crieff. Outside studies he played for the school's 1st rugby team and enjoyed playing the clarinet. He was also an 'extra' in the 1953 film 'Johnny on the Run'. From 1958 to 1965, Jim attended the University of Edinburgh with great enthusiasm and enjoyment. According to his good friend Dennis, academic issues were never a problem. After graduating with an Honours Degree in Chemistry he moved on to do his PhD in 1962, adopting three 'Objectives', the same ones most Graduate students pursued in the 1960s, namely a PhD in three years, a post-doctoral appointment in North America and finding the love of one's life. He achieved the last of these when he met Carol during the first month of his PhD. He duly graduated in 1965 and set out for Boulder, Colorado, returning briefly for his marriage with Carol in October 1966. After a year in Colorado, they returned home and Jim spent a year back at Edinburgh University before he joined the Nutrition Department at the PoultryResearch Centre (PRC) in Edinburgh in October 1968. His research covered many aspects of poultry nutrition, including the digestion of carbohydrate and protein and developing methods for feedstuffs evaluation. He studied feed quality enhancement and assessments of non-traditional feeds. In 1993, Jim became the head of the large Department of Nutritional and Environmental Studies at Roslin Institute, the successor to PRC. The work of his department included behaviour, welfare and other environmental topics, as well as nutrition. He gave good leadership to this widely-based department and battled hard at senior staff meetings at the Institute where the essentially applied nature of his department's work was regarded somewhat less favourably than some of the seemingly more exotic sciences carried out in others. Owing to increasing pressure on government research funding, the idea of expanding commercial income from aspects of Jim's research was proposed, including his methods for feedstuff evaluation assays. In 1997, Roslin Nutrition, a spin-out company from Roslin Institute, was born. Jim and Doug Currie were charged with managing the company, which in 2002 became a completely independent research company, which is still thriving today. Jim was a well-known and popular figure in the poultry nutrition world and a regular speaker at industry and scientific conferences. His other activities at work included responsibility for many national and some international projects, supervising numerous PhD students, co-editing British Poultry Science for 10 years and, for a shorter period, editing World'sPoultry Science Journal. He was very active in the UK branch, organising symposia and conferences. Jim retired from the Roslin Institute in 2001 and from Roslin Nutrition in 2005. Outside work, Jim enjoyed playing rugby, squash and bridge. He was a keen vegetable gardener and latterly an enthusiastic cook. He was a proud and loving father to his two sons, Donald and Scott and he adored his four grandchildren When his wife Carol was asked for her thoughts she said: Jim is remembered as having a great sense of humour: being reliable, generous, loving; positive, honest and forthright; a good man, a great dad; an intellectual, wise, clever man; a kind patient and a wonderful person. On a personal note, Jim was a mentor during my PhD, training me in various ME measurements and becoming a good friend, as well as being a previous editor of WPSJ. He is survived by his wife Carol and his children and grandchildren. I would like to thank Carol for her great help with preparing his obituary. Our thoughts are with the family at this difficult time. Dr Lucy Waldron [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The World'sPoultry Science Association was originally formed as the International Association of Poultry Instructors and Investigators in 1912. Its objectives were to foster the development of the poultry industry, and the exchange of information related to poultry science and technology. From small beginnings it has evolved into a strong international organisation with 7700 members in more than 80 countries. The association publishes the World'sPoultry Science Journal and promotes and oversees World'sPoultry Congresses. It is active in all areas of the poultry industry, from family poultry in developing countries to institutions of research and learning, and production and processing in the industrial world. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
Journal of Agricultural Machinery, Vol 7, Iss 2, Pp 546-557 (2017)
Introduction Energy consumption management is one of the most important issues in poultry halls management. Considering the situation of poultry as one of the largest and most developed industries, it is needed to control growing condition based on world standards. The neural networks as one of the intelligent methods are applied in a lot of fields such as classification, pattern recognition, prediction and modeling of processes. To detect and classify several agricultural crops, a research was conducted based on texture and color feature. The highest classification accuracy for vegetables, grains and fruits with using artificial neural network were 80%, 86% and 70%. In this research, the ability to Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) Neural Network in predicting energy consumption, temperature and humidity in different coordinate placement of electronic control unit sensors in the poultry house environment was examined. Materials and Methods The experiments were conducted in a poultry unit (3000 pieces) that is located in Fars province, Marvdasht city, Ramjerd town, with dimensions of 32 meters long, 7 meters wide and 2.2 meters height. To determine the appropriate placement of the sensor, 60 different points in terms of length, width and height in poultry were selected. Initially, the data was divided into two datasets. 80 percent of total data as a training set and 20 percent of total data as a test set. From180 observations, 144 data were used to train network and 36 data were used to test the process. There are several criteria for evaluating predictive models that they are mainly based according to the difference between the predicted outputs and actual outputs. To evaluate the performance of the model, two statistical indexes, mean squared error (MSE) and the coefficient of determination (R²) were used. Results and Discussions In this study, to train artificial neural network for predicting the temperature, humidity and energy consumption, the trainlm algorithm (Levenberg-Marquardt) was used. To simulate temperature, humidity and energy consumption, networks were trained with two and three layers, respectively. Network with two layers with10 neurons in the hidden layer and one neuron in the output layer with (R²) equal to 0.96 and (MSE) equal to 0.00912, was given the best result for predicting temperature. For humidity electronic sensors, results showed that network with three layers with the 10 neurons in the first hidden layer, 20 neurons in the second hidden layer and one neuron in the output layer with (R²) equal to 0.8 and (MSE) equal to 0.00783 was the best for predicting humidity. Finally, network with two layers with 10 neurons in the first hidden layer, 10 neurons in the second hidden layer and one neuron in the output layer was selected as the optimal structure for predicting energy consumption. For this topology, (R²) and MSE were determined to 0.98 and 0.00114, respectively. Linear and multivariate regression for the parameters affecting temperature, humidity and energy consumption of electronic sensors was determined by the STATGR software. Correlation coefficients indicated that parameters such as length, height and width of the electronic control sensors placed in the poultry hall justified 82% of the temperature changes, 61% of the humidity changes and 92% of the energy consumption changes. Therefore, comparing with correlation coefficients obtained from the neural network models, the highest correlation coefficient was related to energy parameter and the lowest correlation was linked to humidity parameter. Conclusions The results of the study indicated the high performance for predicting temperature, humidity and energy consumption. The networks hadthree inputs including length, width and height of electronic sensor positions and an output for temperature, humidity and energy consumption. For training networks the multiple layer perceptron (MLP) with error back propagation learning algorithm (BP) was used. Functions activity for all networks in hidden layers were tangentsigmoid and in the output layer, linear (purelin). Comparing the results of artificial neural network and logistic regression model showed that artificial neural network model with correlation coefficients of 0.98 (energy), 0.96 (temperature) and 0.8 (humidity) provided closer data to the actual data compared with regression models with correlation coefficients of 0.92, 0.82 and 0.61 for the energy, temperature and humidity respectively.
Artificialneural network - Electronic control - Energy - Modeling - Temperature - Agriculture (General) - S1-972 - Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General) - TA1-2040
World's poultry science journal, 2011 Mar., v. 67, no. 1, p. 137-151.
Includes references Many different methods measuring meat quality traits are available which are based on different principles, and instruments and/or probes. In view of the complexity of meat processes after slaughter and quality trait determination, it is not surprising that the results obtained in different studies and laboratories are not always in agreement. For comparison of results it is therefore necessary to keep strictly to measurable specifications, which is why standardisation is indispensable. The Working Group 5 Poultry Meat Quality group of the WPSA European Federation has been asked to produce a document which would serve as a common base methodology that would permit comparison between research projects carried out by different groups, based on international research programmes. This paper represents the first step of this work including chemical (moisture, total lipids, proteins, ash, fatty acid composition, cholesterol, susceptibility to oxidation, amino acids, collagen and pigments) and physical traits (pH, R-value, colour, water holding capacity, texture and sarcomere length). For the evaluation of chemical composition, there are standard methods available which are largely adopted in the majority of published papers. However, there is still a need to standardise methods for determining the physical traits to facilitate comparisons between studies and to provide reference values.
sarcomeres - fatty acid composition - slaughter - water holding capacity - texture - pigments - oxidation - equipment - cholesterol - poultry meat - meat quality - collagen - color - amino acids - research programs - research projects - normal values
International Journal of Colorectal Disease; May2016, Vol. 31 Issue 5, p1087-1088, 2p
The article focuses on a study on whether poultry intake is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). Topics covered include the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommending the limiting of intake of red meat and avoiding processed meat and the meta-analysis of a study showing that an increase in poultry intake of 50 grammes (g) per day being associated with six percent lower incidence of CRC.
COLON cancer - POULTRY research - MEAT - PROCESSED foods - CARCINOGENICITY