The infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a major health threat to the world’s poultry industry despite intensive controls including proper biosafety practices and vaccination. IBDV (Avibirnavirus, Birnaviridae) is a non-enveloped virus with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome. The virus is traditionally classified into classic, variant and very virulent strains, each with different epidemiological relevance and clinical implications. Recently, a novel worldwide spread genetic lineage was described and denoted as distinct (d) IBDV. Here, we report the development and validation of a reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay for the specific detection of dIBDVs in the global poultry industry. The assay employs a TaqMan-MGB probe that hybridizes with a unique molecular signature of dIBDV. The assay successfully detected all the assessed strains belonging to the dIBDV genetic lineage, showing high specificity and absence of cross-reactivity with non-dIBDVs, IBDV-negative samples and other common avian viruses. Using serial dilutions ofin vitro-transcribed RNA we obtained acceptable PCR efficiencies and determination coefficients, and relatively small intra- and inter-assay variability. The assay demonstrated a wide dynamic range between 103and 108RNA copies/reaction. This rapid, specific and quantitative assay is expected to improve IBDV surveillance and control worldwide and to increase our understanding of the molecular epidemiology of this economically detrimental poultry pathogen. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
Journal of Agricultural Machinery, Vol 8, Iss 2, Pp 377-388 (2018)
Introduction Iran as one of the largest producers of poultry in Asia and plays major role in feeding the world's population, particularly in the poultry industry. Research about this industry will help to improve the quality and the quantity of products. Increasing of the concentration of toxic gases such as NH3 (ammonia), CO2 (carbon dioxide), SH2 and CH4 in poultry houses comes from bird activity inside the barn is one of the basic problems of the farming. Increasing the amount of these gases more than standard level would cause heavy mortality and reductions in the production. Ammonia is one of the most toxic gases in poultry houses, which must be controlled. Different studies have been carried out on measurement of ammonia emissions from poultry houses to reduce energy consumption and reduce emissions of ammonia. But no specific study has been found on ammonia emissions in Iran and there is no reliable documents of ammonia emissions from poultry in this country. Materials and Methods In this study a poultry house with 18 thousand chickens was used to measure the emission rate of ammonia, the effect of temperature, moisture and age of chickens on emissions of ammonia in Sabzevar city. The barn was equipped with semi-automatic mechanical ventilation. At the first step of this research all sensors was installed for data collection, i.e., air velocity, temperature, humidity and ammonia concentration. Recorded data information were stored in a central computer. Five digital sensors, model AM2303, have been used to measure the temperature and humidity of the ambient air quality. The concentration of ammonia in the air inputs and outputs of the farm was measured using an ammonia sensor model TGS2444 every 10 seconds throughout the study and recorded in the central system. The average speed of the exhaust air was measured using the hot wire anemometer probe for every fan. The outputs of all sensors was converted to digital data and transferred to the central computer using RS485 cable in each module. Converting of the sensors output to digital data reduces changing the data and probable errors. Ammonia emission rates was found by calculating the concentration of ammonia and measuring the rate of input air and fans exhaust air by ammonia gas equilibrium equation. Relation of the ammonia emission rate was achieved using affective factors such as age of the birds and inside air humidity and temperature by regression method. Results and Discussion The average rate of ammonia emission during broiler growing were measured 89 mg per day for each bird. Ammonia emission rates increased until the age of 37 days and then decreased after the age of 37 days. Age of birds has the highest impact coefficient and temperature and relative humidity of the barn have the least impact coefficients on the ammonia emission rate. The ammonia emission rate has also increased by increasing the age of the bird, temperature and relative humidity of the air. Comparing of the ammonia emission rate derived from regression equation with real conditions showed that the regression equation method has a high precision for estimating the ammonia emission rate. Conclusions It is showed that the results of this research can predict the ammonia emission rate in the poultry houses and predict the required ventilation rates to minimize the amount of ammonia concentration. The results of this study can be used for automatic control system to minimize energy consumption in the poultry houses. According to the results, the reduction of temperature and humidity in poultry house can be used to reduce the ammonia level.
International Journal of One Health. Annual, 2017, Vol. 3, p28, 8 p.
Introduction For the past five decades, production in poultry industry has documented greater changes than in any other world's livestock subsector in agricultural production. Promising trends in livestock production indicate [...] Aim: Newcastle disease (ND) is an important viral disease for poultry caused by avian paramyxovirus which can be identified by its nature of agglutination activity with red blood cell (RBC) of different species. The study was aimed to characterize the hemagglutinating (HA) activity of ND virus (NDV) at three different temperatures using RBC of five avian species, six mammalian species, and eight different human blood groups. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from January to December 2014 at Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University. Five avian and six different mammalian species were selected for the study. In each species, two blood samples were collected aseptically. Eight different blood groups (A+, A-, B+, B-, AB+, AB-, O+, and O-) were studied in human. HA test was performed using two virus strains ND lasota and field isolate of very virulent NDV (VVNDV) with mentioned species of RBC at chilling (4[degrees]C), incubating (37[degrees]C), and room temperature (24[degrees]C). Results: Avian RBC requires less time for agglutination than mammalian RBC. Incubation temperature (37[degrees]C) requires lowest time and chilling temperature requires highest time for agglutination of RBC. Duck RBC requires lowest time (17.81 min) while chicken RBC needs highest (57.5 min) time for HA at incubation temperature and at chilling temperature, respectively, against ND lasota virus and with field strain. Goat RBC requires significantly higher time for HA (184.68 min) at chilling temperature than other mammalian species. Human RBC requires almost similar time but O+ and O- blood group do not show any HA activity. Significant variation (p<0.05) found in quail RBC at incubation temperature. In mammalian species, a significant difference (p<0.05) has been observed in goat and horse RBC at chilling; horse and dog RBC at incubation; goat, horse, buffalo, and dog RBC at room temperature. In human, significant variation (p<0.05) has been found in A+, A- and B- blood group in chilling, in B+ blood group at incubation and A+, B+, B-, AB- blood group at room temperature against two virus strains. Conclusion: ND is considered as an economically significant disease which is highly contagious in nature infecting many avian species. The threat of ND outbreak to poultry industry necessitates effective control measures to reduce the burden in commercial and backyard farming in Bangladesh. Keywords: chilling temperature, hemagglutination, incubation temperature, Newcastle disease virus, Newcastle disease virus lasota strain, very virulent Newcastle disease virus strain
Newcastle disease -- Research - Poultry industry -- Research - Bangladesh
The World'sPoultry Science Association was originally formed as the International Association of Poultry Instructors and Investigators in 1912. Its objectives were to foster the development of the poultry industry, and the exchange of information related to poultry science and technology. From small beginnings it has evolved into a strong international organisation with 7700 members in more than 80 countries. The association publishes the World'sPoultry Science Journal and promotes and oversees World'sPoultry Congresses. It is active in all areas of the poultry industry, from family poultry in developing countries to institutions of research and learning, and production and processing in the industrial world. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
Sauerborn, Christina / 28 Fordham Intell. Prop. Media & Ent. L.J. 571 (2017-2018) / Fordham Intellectual Property, Media & Entertainment Law Journal, Vol. 28, Issue 3 (Spring 2018), pp. 571-636
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Sima, Yangzi; O'Sullivan, Siobhan / 12 Int'l J. L. Context 1 (March 2016) / International Journal of Law in Context, Vol. 12, Issue 1 (March 2016), pp. 1-23
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World's poultry science journal, 2011 Mar., v. 67, no. 1, p. 137-151.
Includes references Many different methods measuring meat quality traits are available which are based on different principles, and instruments and/or probes. In view of the complexity of meat processes after slaughter and quality trait determination, it is not surprising that the results obtained in different studies and laboratories are not always in agreement. For comparison of results it is therefore necessary to keep strictly to measurable specifications, which is why standardisation is indispensable. The Working Group 5 Poultry Meat Quality group of the WPSA European Federation has been asked to produce a document which would serve as a common base methodology that would permit comparison between research projects carried out by different groups, based on international research programmes. This paper represents the first step of this work including chemical (moisture, total lipids, proteins, ash, fatty acid composition, cholesterol, susceptibility to oxidation, amino acids, collagen and pigments) and physical traits (pH, R-value, colour, water holding capacity, texture and sarcomere length). For the evaluation of chemical composition, there are standard methods available which are largely adopted in the majority of published papers. However, there is still a need to standardise methods for determining the physical traits to facilitate comparisons between studies and to provide reference values.
sarcomeres - fatty acid composition - slaughter - water holding capacity - texture - pigments - oxidation - equipment - cholesterol - poultry meat - meat quality - collagen - color - amino acids - research programs - research projects - normal values